Preface

THIS is not offered as a learned book, needing source-notes. But learned readers may want to know the basis for facts and quotations which seem to them new. Carefully recorded basis exists, and particulars could nearly always be given if asked for. The previously unpublished material drawn on derives from the author's editorship of The Statesman newspaper between 1942 and 1951, and from his having been Historian to the Pakistan Army between 1957 and 1960.

The book's structure also needs explaining. Pakistan is an exceptional country, politically and geographically. Part I describes some problems raised by this, dealing with them subject by subject, not chronologically. Part II, by contrast, is straight historical narrative. So is most of Part III. In Part II, events during the three years or so before the Partition of the Indian subcontinent was decided on in 1947 are examined fully, this being necessary for understanding why Pakistan came to exist, what her character is, and why she maintains certain attitudes in foreign affairs. The way a country won its independence can affect its whole ethos, as (for example) the U.S.A. shows. On the other hand in Part III, about eleven years of Pakistan's domestic politics are telescoped into one chapter, those affairs having been made largely meaningless by the military revolution of October 1958, and, moreover, having been gone into in other books, e.g. by Callard, Khalid Bin Sayeed, Binder. There has also been telescoping over Kashmir. What in a concrete sense happened, during the opening phase ( 1947-9) of that extremely important Indo-Pakistani dispute, is described in detail. But the subsequent debates at the U.N. and elsewhere, protracted and verbose, are almost ignored, because so far they have led to nothing. Particulars can be got in Korbel, Bazaz, Birdwood, Sarwar Hasan, Ferguson (see the Bibliography).

Prefixes before men's names have been kept brief. And those in use at the time are preferred to honorifics got later. If the person has died, but was alive as lately as 1935, the prefix stays. Thus we have 'Mr. Jinnah', 'Mr. Gandhi', which is how those leaders were referred to during most of their lifetimes. But prefixes are shorn from historical personages; 'Curzon', for instance, or ' Syed Ahmad

-v-

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Pakistan
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents ix
  • Maps 10
  • Part I 11
  • Chapter I - The Idea 13
  • Chapter 2 - The Land 33
  • Chapter 3 - Some Social Problems 48
  • Part II 67
  • Chapter 4 - Retrospect, 1857-1946 69
  • Chapter 5 - Towards Civil War 80
  • Chapter 6 - Trouble in the Armed Forces 86
  • Chapter 7 - The Cabinet Mission's Plan 96
  • Chapter 8 - Civil War -- I 108
  • Chapter 9 - Change of Viceroys 120
  • Chapter 10 - The Sikh Problem 131
  • Chapter II - Civil War -- II 137
  • Chapter 12 - Civil War -- III 147
  • Part III 167
  • Chapter 13 - Birth of a Nation -- I 169
  • Chapter 14 - Birth of a Nation -- II 182
  • Chapter 15 - Mainly About Kashmir 192
  • Chapter 16 - Defence and Foreign Affairs 212
  • Chapter 17 - Some Economic Problems 223
  • Chapter 28 - Politics and Constitution, 1947-58 229
  • Chapter 19 - Military Revolution 246
  • Postscript 262
  • Bibliography 265
  • Maps 269
  • Index 271
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