The Families of Flowering Plants: Arranged According to a New System Based on Their Probable Phylogeny - Vol. 1

By J. Hutchinson; W. E. Trevithick | Go to book overview

CONSPECTUS OF PRINCIPAL LIVING GROUPS OF FLOWERING PLANTS

PHYLUM I. GYMNOSPERMAE.1--Ovules; naked, not enclosed by an ovary, receiving the pollen-grains (microspores), mainly borne by the wind, directly on the micropyle; embryo-sac enclosed in the nucellus and filled with tissue (rudimentary prothallus) before fertilisation and containing two or more egg- cells (archegonia), the latter usually consisting of a large egg-cell and a short neck; pollen-grains (microspores) spherical or oval, often with a bladder-like extension of the outer coat (extine), containing a prothallus of two or more cells, one of which produces two non-motile or rarely motile male cells. Cotyledons two or several, very rarely one by suppression. Wood (except in Gnetaceae) with no true vessels. Trees and shrubs with usually evergreen xerophilous, needle-like or fern-like foliage and unisexual "flowers", mainly found in the mountainous and cool temperate regions of the world, extending to the limits of phanerogamic ligneous vegetation on high mountains and towards the poles. A comparatively small but very ancient phylum of plants, abundant in past ages, but now represented only by the Cycads, Yews, Pine-trees, etc., very numerous in individuals and yielding many valuable timber trees, but no food plants of any importance.

PHYLUM II. ANGIOSPERMAE. --Ovules enclosed in an ovary usually crowned by a style and stigma, the latter receiving the pollen-grains (microspores) mainly through the agency of insects, becoming wind-pollinated when much reduced. Wood when present consisting of true vessels.2 A more recently evolved phylum than the Gymnospermae, and constituting the bulk of the present world vegetation, yielding valuable timbers and practically all food, forage and medicinal plants.

SUBPHYLUM I. DICOTYLEDONES. --Embryonic plant with 2 seed-leaves (cotyledons). Vascular bundles of the stem usually arranged in a circle (except in a few genera of the lower herbaceous families 3 (q.v.) which have scattered bundles). Leaves typically net-veined, opposite or alternate. Flowers usually pentamerous or tetramerous.

Division I. ARCHICHLAMYDEAE .4--Petals free from each other or absent (very rarely united at the base).

Division II. METACHLAMYDEAH .5--Petals united into a tube.

SUBPHYLUM II. MONOCOTYLEDONES .--Embryonic plant with only I seed leaf. Vascular bundles of the stem closed and scattered. Leaves typically parallel-nerved, alternate. Flowers usually trimerous.

This book deals only with the Subphylum DICOTYLEDONES.

____________________
1
For convenience I include in this conspectus the Gymnosperms, though not, strictly speaking, true flowering plants.
2
Except in some Winteraceae (Drimys, etc.).
3
Cf. Banunculaceae, p. 94.
4
From ἀρχή (beginning) and χλαμύς (cloak), referring to the perianth; includes Polypetalae and Monochlamydeae (Apetalae).
5
Probably the most suitable name for Gamopetalae or Sympetalae, from μετά (implying change) and χλαμύς (cloak). These two divisions are convenient, but more or less artificial, being founded only on a single character.

-9-

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The Families of Flowering Plants: Arranged According to a New System Based on Their Probable Phylogeny - Vol. 1
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Foreword vii
  • Author's Preface ix
  • Contents xiii
  • Signs and Abbreviations xiv
  • Introduction 1
  • Conspectus of Principal Living Groups Of Flowering Plants 9
  • Subphylum Dicotyledones 10
  • List of Families with Certain More or Less Constant Characters 79
  • Division I. Archichlamydeae 81
  • Division Ii. Metachlamydeae. 265
  • Glossary 311
  • Index 313
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