NOTES TO PART TWO
1.

On this, and on what follows, see Frankl, The Gothic, 299 ff.

p. 217

2.

For Christopher Wren's theory of the Saracen origin of Gothic, see Frankl, The Gothic, 360 ff.

p. 218

3.

The central spoke was built vertically at Beauvais for technical reasons; it was the first spoke to be erected, and it was easiest to set it vertically. However, there were aesthetic reasons to want to keep the centre-line free. (By contrast, however, cf. the oculus in the west façade at Strassburg.)

p. 222

4.

Illustrated in Lasteyrie, op. cit., I, 484. See also L. Behling, op. cit. (Note 106 to Chapter 3).

p. 223

5.

Frankl, The Gothic, 110 ff.

p. 224

6.

Dehio, K.B., II, 24.

p. 226

7.

Examples are Noyon, Dijon (Notre-Dame), Troyes (St Urbain), and Casamari.

p. 227

8.

The best and most comprehensive introduction is given in Joseph Sauer, Symbolik des Kirchengebäudes ( Freiburg i. Br., 1902). On the subject of the figure twelve, see p. 66. There are also much older treatises on numerical symbolism; see Frankl, The Gothic, 211 ff.

p. 229

9.

Günter Bandmann, Mittelalterliche Architektur als Bedeutungsträger ( Berlin, 1951), 229. His interpretation seems doubtful when applied to places where the emperor could hardly have been expected to worship - for instance, at Maria Laach.

p. 230

10.

Karl Lehmann, "'The Dome of Heaven'", The Art Bulletin, XXVII ( 1945), 1-27.

p. 231

11.
Luke 17:21: regnum Dei intra vos est.
12.

Unfortunately, mathematicians also call their signs symbols, although they are really only signs. In the terminology of my System etc. (Note 181 to Chapter 4), signs like signposts, numbers, and letters have a meaning in the second degree of concepts; signposts or the marks on a scale are cognate with their meaning (direction, distance, etc.), and letters and musical notation are conventions. Signs become symbols when they take on a higher meaning - for instance, a cross is a sign for a meaning of the second degree in mathematics, but if it signifies the Cross of Christ, or Christ himself, it becomes a symbol of the third degree, as do the attributes for the saints.

p. 232

13.
Sensations, feeling, and human instincts are also part of nature, whereas our conceptions, ideas, and concepts (including our conceptions and concepts of sensations, feelings, and human instincts) are creations of human reason - which is a part of the human spirit. This is the same relationship as that between a lion as a natural object and the notion 'lion', in which the natural object is included. (Cf. Frankl, System, 667.)
14.

The interpretation of the Song of Solomon as a dialogue between Christ and the Church (the bride) is superimposed symbolism. Originally this was a pure love lyric, meant in its most concrete sense. St John speaks of the bride of the Lamb and, by the bride, means the Heavenly Jerusalem - the kingdom of God. It must be left to theologians to decide whether this interpretation of the Song of Solomon is a transference of the sense of the Apocalypse.

p. 234

15.
It is unlikely that he can have known Ovid's description of the palace of Helios.
16.
Frankl, The Gothic, the chapter on architectural fantasies (p. 159 ff.).
17.

Bandmann, op. cit., 89. See also Alfred Stange, Das frühchristliche Kirchengebäude als Bild des Himmels ( Cologne, 1950). Stange rejects Kitschelt's theory, but himself puts forward an untenable one when he tries to show a connexion between the cathedral at Trier as it was about 450, and the text in the book of the Revelation, 21.

p. 235

18.
Richard Krautheimer, "'Introduction to an Iconography of Medieval Architecture'", Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, V ( 1942). The only thing that could arouse criticism in this article is the word 'iconography'. Architecture is not and can never be an icon. This essay does not touch on the problem of Gothic style, and it need not, therefore, be discussed further here.
19.
It should be stressed once more that representational art embraces sculpture and painting, but not architecture. The Italians classified all three arts under the heading arti del disegno, but one could also put the art of writing (signum), that is calligraphy, under this heading.

-293-

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Gothic Architecture
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Figures vii
  • List of Plates ix
  • Foreword xv
  • Part One - The History of Gothic Architecture 1
  • Introduction 1
  • Chapter 1 - The Transition 15
  • Chapter 2 - The Early Gothic Period 34
  • Chapter 3 - The High Gothic Style, 1194-1300 79
  • Chapter 4 - The Late Gothic Style 146
  • Part Two - The General Problems of the Gothic Style 217
  • List of the Principal Abbreviations 271
  • Notes to the Foreword 273
  • Notes to Part One 274
  • Notes to Part Two 293
  • Bibliography 297
  • The Plates 301
  • Index 303
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