IF, according to the economic theory of Communism, labor proper, i. e., the rank and file of economic producers, constitutes the most important determining factor in the productive forces of a country, the second place in the scale of importance is assigned to management, i. e., the highly specialized and trained directing personnel. In the second stage of the movement, when Communism proper is achieved, the two factors are expected to be merged into one. But until that stage is reached, during the transitional period, management continues to play a rôle of its own, and, as things have developed in Russia, it is the second fundamental human element in the situation which the Soviet economic régime faces.
The problem of dealing with the question of management and of its personnel has been rendered particularly difficult for the Soviet régime by two factors. In the first place, the technical and directing personnel of industry and trade can scarcely be squeezed into the hard and fast classifications of the class theory: it is neither proletarian, nor bourgeois, in the strict sense of those terms. And in the second place, the absence of a more or less definite economic program at the be-