Air and Water Pollution Regulation: Accomplishments and Economic Consequences

By Martin Freedman; Bikki Jaggi | Go to book overview

Chapter 6
WATER POLLUTION AND PULP AND PAPER COMPANIES

In this chapter, pollution performance of the pulp and paper companies, based on an aggregation of the mill pollution performance, is presented. Information is presented first for each of the three pollutants discussed in chapter 5 and then for the overall pollution performance of the firm. For 1978, 13 companies are included since not enough pollution information was available for Kimberly Clark or Union Camp. The 1983 and 1986 pollution information includes all 15 firms whose mills were analyzed in chapter 5.


MEASUREMENT AND RANKINGS

Pulp and paper mills operate in different parts of the United States, using different processes in making pulp and paper, and the wastewater empties into rivers, streams and lakes of different sizes. Thus, it is difficult to compare these mills either individually or in aggregate. Nevertheless, all the managers of these mills should have been aware of the goals of the Federal Water Pollution Control Amendments of 1972 to make all lakes, streams, and rivers swimmable or fishable and to achieve no pollution discharge by 1985. Furthermore, the technology to clean up the mill to a near-zero level of pollution was available to the firms by 1983. Therefore, the level of pollution that the mill emitted was a decision that was controlled by the firm's managers.

In order to compare companies that have mills of different sizes it was necessary to calculate the pollution emissions per ton of production. These calculations were done in chapter 5 for each company and for those mills for which production data were available. This chapter focuses on BOD, TSS

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