The starting place for any research on Lincoln is his published papers, edited by Roy P. Basler et al. and entitled The Collected Works of Abraham Lincoln, 9 vols. ( New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1953-55), Supplements ( 1973, 1991). Lincoln's ideas receive careful, sympathetic consideration in James M. McPherson , Abraham Lincoln and the Second American Revolution ( New York: Oxford University Press, 1991). Garry Wills examines Lincoln republicanism in Lincoln at Gettysburg: The Words That Remade America ( New York: Simon and Schuster, 1992). The British interventionist threat and related issues involving slavery receive special attention in Howard Jones, Union in Peril: The Crisis over British Intervention in the Civil War ( Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1992).
Lincoln's policies toward slavery and the Union have drawn attention, although not enough on their interrelationship. LaWanda Cox offers a close and favorable analysis in Lincoln and Black Freedom: A Study in Presidential Leadership ( Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, 1981). For a critical view, see Robert W. Johannsen, Lincoln, the South, and Slavery: The Political Dimension ( Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1991). See also Don E. Fehrenbacher , "Only His Stepchildren: Lincoln and the Negro," Civil War History 20 ( December 1974); George M. Fredrickson, "A Man but Not a Brother: Abraham Lincoln and Racial Equality," Journal of Southern History 41 ( February 1975); and Howard Jones, "To Preserve a Nation: Abraham Lincoln and Franklin D. Roosevelt as Wartime Diplomatists," in War Comes Again: Comparative Vistas on the Civil War and World War II, ed. Gabor S. Boritt ( New York: Oxford University. Press, 1995), 167-95. For the classic account of Lincoln's move against slavery, see John Hope Franklin, The Emancipation Proclamation ( Garden City NY: Doubleday, 1963).
The most useful broad studies of America's relations with Europe during the Civil War are Ephraim D. Adams, Great Britain and the American Civil War, 2 vols. ( New York: Longmans, Green, 1925); Lynn M. Case and Warren F. Spencer , The United States and France: Civil War Diplomacy. ( Philadelphia: University