The Central Asian States: Discovering Independence

By Gregory Gleason | Go to book overview

The Alma-Ata Declaration was rapidly acknowledged by the international community. It sealed the fate of the Soviet Union. Thus without a referendum, without a popular mandate, without parliamentary advice or consent, the Soviet state ceased to exist. USSR President Mikhail Gorbachev, simply acknowledging the inevitable, resigned on December 25, 1991. The Soviet flag ceased to fly over the Kremlin. It ceased to fly over the USSR. It ceased to fly over Central Asia.


NOTES
1.
James Critchlow is right in pointing out that the very idea of nationalism is foreign to Central Asian societies in noting that nationality "was a European concept imported to the territory by outsiders operating in the framework of the new Soviet regime." James Critchlow, Nationalism in Uzbekistan ( Boulder: Westview Press, 1991), p. 4.
2.
For many years Russian-language sources delicately avoided any discussion of how the boundaries of the Central Asian states were actually determined. There were no published discussions of the composition of the committees, how many people were consulted, whether public meetings were held, whether tsarist-era anthropological studies were used, and so on.
3.
Although the Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Republic was not at first referred to as a "socialist republic," the abbreviation customarily used in Soviet sources was Turkestan ASSR.
4.
G. A. Ian Rudzutak, Turkan (rpt. Moscow: Academy of Sciences, 1963), p. 62.
5.
Alexandre Bennigsen and S. Enders Wimbush, Muslims of the Soviet Empire ( Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1986), p. 33.
6.
Tsentral'naia partiinaia arkhiva IML pri TsK KPSS, F. 17, op. B/n, ed. khr. 394, l. 26. Cited in A. Agzamkhodzhaev and Sh. Urazaev, "Natsional'no-gosudarstvennomu razmezhevaniiu respublik Sovetskoi Srednei Azii--60 let," Sovetskoe gosudarstvo i pravo no. 10 ( 1984): 29, n. 11.
7.
A description of the scope of the Kazak purge may be found in Martha Brill Olcott , The Kazakhs ( Stanford: Hoover Institution Press, 1987), pp. 218-219.
8.
Kunaev's account of the events of December 1986 may be found in A. D. Kunaev , O moem vremeni ( Alma-Ata: RGZhI, 1992), pp. 267-283.
9.
For empirical analysis of this point, see in particular Grey Hodnett, Leadership in the Soviet National Republics: A Quantitative Study of Recruitment Policy ( Oakville, Ontario: Mosaic Press, 1978).
10.
The Muslim republics seem to have been singled out for special treatment in the security area. Whereas in the non-Muslim borderland republics a member of the titular nationality usually occupied the post of KGB chairman, in the Central Asian republics this post usually went to a member of European nationality. See Timur Kocaoglu, "The Chairmanships of the State Security Committees of the Soviet Muslim Republics," RFE/RL Radio Liberty Research RL 34/84 ( 19 January 1984).

-77-

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The Central Asian States: Discovering Independence
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents vii
  • Contents ix
  • Preface xi
  • A Note on Languages In Central Asia xiii
  • One - New States and Ancient Societies 1
  • Notes 21
  • Two - Legacies of Central Asia 25
  • Notes 46
  • Three - The Soviet Socialist Republics of Central Asia 48
  • Notes 77
  • Four - Central Asian States Emergent 82
  • Notes 132
  • Five - Central Asia and the World 136
  • Notes 164
  • Six - Transition in Asia 168
  • Notes 184
  • Chronology of Events In Modern Central Asia: November 1917- December 1995 187
  • Sources on Central Asian Politics, Economics, And Society 205
  • About the Book and Author 211
  • Index 212
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