ON THE EARLIEST GREEK SETTLEMENT AT HISSARLIK.
OBSTALDEN, CANTON GLARUS, September 15, 1883.
MY DEAR FRIEND SCHLIEMANN,
You wish to receive my testimony on the character of the objects found in those strata of the citadel-hill of Hissarlik, which correspond to the third, fourth, fifth, and sixth cities according to your division. Although here on the Lake of Wallenstadt I am away from all literary aids, and from my own notes, yet, in answer to your English critics, I will gladly report from my recollection what I observed as an eye-witness of your excavations in March and April, 1879. I can do this with so much the greater confidence, as it was precisely to the earthenware in its chronological order that I devoted very particular attention.
What appeared to me an eminently safe starting-point for these considerations was the wall of wrought blocks, which in its long course is preserved in its original situation, and which you held at that time to be the wall of Lysimachus. Whether this explanation was right or wrong, at all events in either case alike this wall supplied a fixed datum line, and at the same time a totally new architectural element which does not occur in the deeper strata. I therefore repeatedly examined, with my own hands, those layers of débris on which this wall had been erected. Nowhere did I find in them any fragments of terra-cottas whatever, or any other objects, which could be claimed as Roman. Here, too, were equally absent those remains (of pottery), which are so abundant throughout the uppermost strata--the strata of Ilium Novum-- on which there is a painted ornamentation, geometrical or of figures, or which by their peculiar form, such as small plates or jugs with an elaborate foot, bear a marked Greek character.
On the contrary, there were found immediately below the wall, but in a layer of very insignificant depth, numerous frag-