Evaluating Public Sector Research and Development

By Albert N. Link | Go to book overview

1
Public Sector Research and Development: An Introduction

Historically, public policies toward innovation have been directed at research and development (R&D) activity, and the government has a long history of such support. 1 The U.S. Navy's sponsored research programs date as far back as 1789, and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's involvement in the land-grant college system dates from the mid-1800s. Since World War II, direct government support of R&D and of other aspects of the innovation process increased dramatically in response to military needs and to the government's responsibility for enhancing research capabilities as outlined in the National Science Foundation Act of 1947. This public support has 'been focused in two areas. One area' is basic research, which is an investment in the nation's science base; and the other is applied R&D, which even when it has a defense orientation still enhances the overall research capabilities of individual firms.

Because of the massive economic growth resulting from World War II and the vulnerability of the U.S. economy to a post-war economic downturn, the government developed a number of strategies for harnessing the economic potential of science and technology. Prominent among these was a recommendation by Vannevar Bush, then Director of the Office of Science and Research Development. He urged the government to continue to invest in fundamental science as a cornerstone for maintaining American preeminence. Bush's plan called for establishing a national program for both basic research and graduate education that would keep the nation ready to meet future military or economic threats. Combined with plans by the military to maintain its research enterprise, his proposal made possible the establishment of the first U.S. science policy in the late 1940s--a policy separate and distinct from any commercial technology policy and separate and distinct from a science and

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Evaluating Public Sector Research and Development
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents vii
  • Tables ix
  • Acknowledgments xi
  • 1 - Public Sector Research and Development: An Introduction 1
  • Notes 5
  • 2 - Evaluation Issues Related to Public Sector Research and Development 7
  • Notes 15
  • 3 - Advanced Technology Program 17
  • Notes 43
  • 4 - Real-Time Control System Architecture 51
  • Notes 59
  • 5 - Conformance Test Program for Sql 61
  • Notes 73
  • 6 - Isdn Technology 75
  • Notes 84
  • 7 - Power and Energy Calibration Services 87
  • Conclusions 97
  • 8 - Electromigration Characterization 99
  • Conclusions 110
  • Notes 111
  • 9 - Optical Fiber Standards 113
  • Notes 127
  • 10 - An Assessment of Public Sector Research and Development 131
  • Bibliography 133
  • Index 141
  • About the Author 145
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