The chapters in this book provide an overview of the development of the international movie industry from the inception of cinema in the 1890s to the present. Movie industries are examined in countries from each of following geographical regions: East Asia (Japan and China); South Asia and Pacific Rim (India and Australia); the Middle East (Israel and Iran); sub-Saharan Africa (Senegal and South Africa); Central and Eastern Europe (Hungary and Russia/Soviet Union); Western Europe (France, Germany, and Italy); Northern Europe (Great Britain and Sweden); South America (Brazil); and North America (Mexico, Canada, and the United States). While movie industries in each of these countries are at least partly representative of those in other countries within their respective regions, significant differences and some unique circumstances exist within and between these countries that prevent this anthology or indeed any anthology from being truly comprehensive. Nonetheless, summarizing research findings in each of the chapters in this book leads to some tentative conclusions about the global movie industry. Various industries' connections and responses to Hollywood in addition to a variety of other factors indigenous to their domestic situations may have stimulated important developments within the international movie industry. This concluding chapter consists of two parts: (1) a summary of each chapter in this book followed by (2) an overview of how Hollywood obtained and has maintained a leading role in the international movie industry, with supporting quotations from different authors concerning various responses to Hollywood.
In his history of the Japanese film industry, David Desser argues that cinema in Japan arose and developed with increasing industrialization, Westernization, and urbanization in conjunction with larger sociohistorical events, such