PACHE, JEAN-NICOLAS ( 1746-1823), political functionary under the Old Regime and the Revolution, minister of war ( October 1792-February 1793), and mayor of Paris ( March 1793-April 1794). Pache began his administrative career under the patronage of the maréchal de Castries, whose children he had tutored. He served as first secretary in the naval ministry, then as naval intendant of Toulon and as director of naval provisions. Under J. Necker he acted briefly as financial controller for the Maison du Roi. Pache then chose to retire to Switzerland just before the outbreak of the Revolution in 1789. Following the death of his wife, Pache returned to France in 1792 and was taken up by J.-M. Roland de la Platière, who gave Pache a post in his Ministry of the Interior. Dismissed with the rest of the Girondins in June 1792, Pache returned to power with them after 10 August and replaced J. Servan as minister of war on 18 October.
In the emerging struggle between Girondins and Montagnards, Pache sympathized with the Mountain. As minister of war he clashed with C. Dumouriez over the provisioning of the army; Pache wanted to centralize purchasing, while Dumouriez preferred to deal with private contractors among his associates. Pache drew apart from Roland and developed a reputation for running a sans-culotte ministry. When Roland fell in January 1793, the Girondins took revenge by expelling Pache from his post. He was now seriously adopted by the Jacobins and was elected mayor of Paris on 13 February.
As mayor, Pache was caught between the power of the Paris sections and the Convention's distrust of the Paris Commune. Had the Commune held authority sufficient to dominate the sections, its influence might have threatened the Convention, and this dilemma bounded Pache's mayoral career. Pache supported G.-J. Danton's call for a Revolutionary Tribunal in March 1793; at the request of the Luxembourg section, he and the procureur P.-G. Chaumette demanded that the Convention impose a Revolutionary tax; he supported partial amnesty for participants in the prison massacres of September 1792; he acted in May to suppress the muscadins (young Girondin supporters who were the social pred-