The Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966-1976), also called the Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution, was one of the most tumultuous periods in modern Chinese history. During this turbulent decade, many events happened in China: the Red Guards movement; the nationwide revolutionary rebels and great chaos; the fall of Liu Shaoqi, Deng Xiaoping and other party and state leaders; the military intervention; the forming of revolutionary committees to replace local part committees and administrative bodies; the Lin Biao affair; the movement to send millions of youth and intellectuals to countryside; the campaign to criticize Lin Biao and Confucius; the Tiananmen Square incident; and so on. It wounded many Chinese people in all strata deeply. During the different stages of the Cultural Revolution, millions of people were killed, committed suicide, or suffered unspeakable hardships both physically and psychologically.
The Cultural Revolution involved virtually all Chinese people and indirectly many other countries in the world. During the Cultural Revolution, revolutionary art, music, and dramas were pursued, and major reforms in education, factory management, economic planning, medical care, and other areas of Chinese life were carried out. Many of these actually brought bitterness and injury to the Chinese people. During this turbulent decade, China also encountered difficulties, setbacks, and isolation in the international relations area in the late 1960s, and made some efforts to improve relations with other countries and expand its diplomatic base in the 1970s.
Over the past three decades, studies of the Cultural Revolution have been well underway and thousands of works have been published in Chinese and in Western languages. Some works have given scholarly analyses and explanations of the Cultural Revolution. Many works have criticized, condemned, or