|4001||Averill J. R. "Grief: Its Nature and Significance". Psychological Bulletin 70 ( 1968): 721-748.|
"Bereavement behavior" is considered to be a total response pattern to the loss of a loved object. This includes the components of mourning (social expectations) and grief (distress of biological origin following loss). The features of grief include (a) symptoms of withdrawal, fatigue, sleep disturbance, loss of appetite; (b) the symptoms are connected to a well- defined stimulus situation which is a real or imagined loss, which is resolved through new object relations; (c) the phenomenon appears both among human beings and in higher primates; (d) the emotions are extremely stressful both in body and mind and yet behavior during grief is not conducive to the establishment of new relations which would alleviate stress.
|4002|| Bowlby John. "Process of Mourning". International Journal of
Psycho-Analysis 42 ( 1961): 317-340. Reprinted in The Meaning of
Despair, ed. by
Willard Gaylin, 263-320. New York: Science House,|
From his studies of separation anxiety among widows and children who suffer loss, a psychiatrist suggests a three stage pattern of the grief process: (1) an instinctual urge to recover the loss object, which may be recognized as weeping and anger, (2) despair or disorganization, and (3) reorganization directed toward a new object. In contrast, pathological