THERE ARE MANY PEOPLE without whom I could have never completed this book. First and foremost, I want to thank the activists who so graciously gave of themselves and their time to provide me with their powerful and thoughtful stories. For many, recalling the trials and tribulations in their struggle for freedom and justice was a source of both joy and pain. To all of you, I offer my appreciation for your openness, honesty, and trust.
I also wish to extend my gratitude to Diane Ware and the staff at the Martin Luther King, Jr. Center for Non-Violent Social Change; to the staff supervising the Civil Rights Documentation Project at the Moorland Spingarn Research Center at Howard University; and to the Boston University staff who provided access to the Martin Luther King, Jr. Papers. Although I requested numerous files, all who helped were kind and patient. A special thank-you is offered to Marymal Dryden, Georgia State University, and civil rights activists Reginald Robinson, Cleve Sellers, and Jack Chatfield, who were kind enough to assist me in locating the women activists.
Funding and in some cases leave time, without which this project could not have been completed, were provided by the Rackham Dissertation Grant, University of Michigan; American Sociological Association Minority Dissertation Fellowship, which was funded jointly by the Association of Black Sociologists and the Society of Women Sociologists; Center for the Continuing Education of