THE STRUGGLE FOR EXISTENCE
THE second period of Quaker history extended from the restoration of Charles II to the death of George Fox and was as truly conditioned by the Restoration Settlement as was the first period by the Commonwealth. The Restoration marked a great change in the spirit and history of the nation and affected profoundly the fortunes of the Society of Friends.
The primary cause of the Restoration was the dislike of the English people for the severity, strictness and cost of Puritan military rule, to which Cromwell had been driven by inability to secure a satisfactory parliament. The Puritans had failed in their effort to establish the kingdom of the saints. The sectaries had been disappointed by their failure to secure religious and civil liberty. After Cromwell's death his son Richard lacked the strength to hold the Commonwealth together. The army became divided and General Monk occupied London and declared for a free parliament as a first step toward the restoration of "a government of king, lords and parliament," which seemed the only kind of government upon which, in the emergency, the people could unite. From his exile in Holland