CHAPTER 19
THE QUAKERS AMID INDIAN TROUBLES, THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR AND SLAVERY

THERE remain to be considered the influence of the French and Indian and Revolutionary wars upon American Friends and the work of the Friends during this period for the Indians and slaves. The development of the discipline was hastened by these events and by pioneer conditions which had delayed its serious beginnings. On the other hand, certain distinctive phases of Quaker philanthropy were developed earlier than elsewhere by the peculiar relations of the colonies to the Indians and Negro slavery.

The outbreak of the French and Indian War brought about a sharp change in the position and character of Pennsylvania Quakerism. The Indians had been alienated, the colonists on the exposed front were out of sympathy with the Quaker pacifism and Indian policy, the British government was impatiently demanding military supplies and defense measures of the colonies, and the governor declared war on the Delaware Indians. These conditions, not of their own making, placed the Quaker minority in the Assembly in an impossible position. The yearly meeting and a delegation of English Friends advised the Quaker assemblymen to resign in order to prevent the English government from imposing an oath of office which would have excluded Friends from all offices in the colonies. Most of them resigned or refused reëlection, and thus the direct

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