THE sub-division of the Age of Quietism, which was par excellence the period of philanthropy, extended from 1784 to 1828. 'The disciplinary period in America was shortened partly because the continued growth of the Society in the early eighteenth century did not allow its crystallization quite so early as in England: and partly because, when the disciplinary crystallization did start in America, it had the advantage of the example of some twenty years' development in England. In America the disciplinary and the philanthropic periods partly overlapped, due perhaps to the fact that the practice of Negro slavery and the problems of the Indians kept alive and stimulated the philanthropic spirit.
Though the interests and activities of Friends were pretty well limited by Quietism and its traditions, happily they had traditions which justified philanthropic labors without stirring up the bogey of "creaturely activity." The principles of Friends in the early days had always involved them in social interests and obligations. The doctrine of the potential divine sonship of all men provided for large social applications of Christianity. George Fox and his co-