THE AWAKENING OF ENGLISH QUAKERISM
THE periods of the third division of Quaker history in America were set off by two very definite events; the separation of 1827-1828 and the Civil War ( 1861); but in England these periods were not so definitely marked off. British Friends had begun officially to take an active part in public affairs with the anti-slavery issue; and individuals had, as has already been told, associated with non-Friends in efforts for various philanthropic reforms. It was natural, therefore, that the great economic and social changes of the Industrial Revolution should enlist them in the political, humanitarian and constitutional struggles, which these changes occasioned. The participation of Friends in the Anti-slavery movement which secured the abolition of slavery in the British Dominions ( 1833); the beginning of their participation in public life, signalized by the election of Joseph Pease to parliament ( 1832); the activities of Joseph Sturge and John Bright on behalf of parliamentary reform, and the Beaconite controversy ( 1835) were signs of the new era.
In England the end of the first period in modern Quaker history was indicated by the publication of John Stephenson Rowntree's Quakerism, Past and Present ( 1859), a study of the decline of the Society which startled English Friends into a consciousness of their actual state; by important changes in the discipline in 1859-1861 and by the rise of new religious concerns for the welfare of nonFriends, such as the adult schools and foreign missions.