The Oxford Companion to British History

By John Cannon | Go to book overview


Dafydd ap Gruffydd (d. 1283), prince of Wales ( 1282-3). The third son of Gruffydd ap Llywelyn of Gwynedd, he was the last prince of Wales. Ambitious, treacherous, and disloyal to his elder brother *Llywelyn, he allowed himself to be manipulated by English kings. Quarrelling with Llywelyn, he did homage to Henry III ( 1253); after his defeat by Llywelyn at the battle of Bryn Derwin ( June 1255), they were reconciled though their relationship was not easy. In 1263 he joined Henry III, though when Llywelyn was recognized as prince of Wales ( 1267) Dafydd was restored to land and position and swore fealty to Llywelyn. In 1274 he and Powys's princes plotted Llywelyn's death, after which he fled to Edward I. After Llywelyn's defeat ( 1277), Dafydd was given substantial lands in north-east Wales and England, and married the king's relative, Elizabeth Ferrers. Dissatisfied with this treatment, he attacked Hawarden ( 21 March 1282) and Llywelyn was drawn into the war. After Llywelyn's death (December), Dafydd held out in Dolbadarn castle and styled himself prince of Wales. He was betrayed by Welshmen, tried at Shrewsbury, and executed for treason ( 3 October 1283). His children were kept confined for life.


Dafydd ap Llywelyn (c. 1208-46), prince of Gwynedd ( 1240-6). The only son of *Llywelyn ab Iorwerth, prince of Gwynedd, and Joan, daughter of King John, he was declared heir to his father's principality. This was recognized by Henry III ( 1220) and the pope ( 1222), and Welsh nobles swore fealty to him ( 1226, 1238); he did homage to Henry III ( 1229). Dafydd's marriage to Isabella, daughter of William de *Braose, incorporated Builth into Llywelyn's domain. Dafydd's elevation alienated his illegitimate elder brother Gruffydd, and tension grew as their father aged; in 1239 Dafydd deprived Gruffydd of some lands and imprisoned him. When Llywelyn died ( 1240), Henry III determined to curb Dafydd's ambitions. At Gloucester (15 May) he was knighted by the king, who received his homage; but Llywelyn's acquisitions outside Gwynedd were withheld and the homage of other Welsh nobles was reserved to the king. These humiliating terms were imposed on Dafydd in agreements at Gwerneigron and London (29 August and 24 October 1241), whilst Gruffydd was handed over to Henry III, who exploited him against Dafydd. After Gruffydd died ( 1 March 1244) while trying to escape from the Tower of London, Dafydd resolved to resist the king: he gained support from Welsh nobles, sought endorsement from the pope, wrote to the king of France, styled himself prince of Wales, and resumed his father's policy of creating a modern, feudal principality. Henry III launched an expedition against him ( 1245), but it was Dafydd's sudden death at Aber ( 25 February 1246) that halted his ambitions. He was buried in Aberconwy abbey. He had no heir and Gruffydd's sons claimed Gwynedd; for the moment, however, the crown's triumph was complete, as the treaty of *Woodstock ( 30 April 1247) illustrated.


Dáil Éireann is the Lower House of the Parliament of Eire, the upper house being the Senate. Its first meeting in the Mansion House at Dublin was in January 1919 after *Sinn Fein had won 73 seats at the general election, boycotted the Westminster Parliament, and proclaimed themselves the Parliament of the Irish Republic. There are 166 members elected by proportional representation on a five- year basis. The prime minister is the Taoiseach.


Daily Telegraph. This newspaper has come to embody the ideology of conservative, middle-class, middle England in popular perception. Its origins were far from this, being a pioneer of 'popular' journalism in 1855, in the wake of the repeal of press taxes, with its selling price of 2 pence later dropping to 1 penny. By 1888, its sales of 300,000 had left The Times's 60,000 far behind. But a decline around the turn of the century was halted only with its purchase by press magnate Lord Camrose, who reshaped it successfully in its middle-class mould and laid the foundations for its unrivalled reputation for wide and authoritative news coverage.


Dalhousie, James Andrew Broun Ramsay, 1st Marquis and 10th Earl. ( 1812-60). Born at Dalhousie castle, Scotland, he was the son of a commander-in-chief of the Indian army. Politically he was a Peelite and, after serving at the Board of Trade from 1843-5, was appointed governorgeneral of India in 1848. His period in office was distinguished by its aggressive westernization, which contributed to the *Indian mutiny of 1857. He extended the boundaries of British India, annexing the Punjab ( 1849) and Pegu in Burma ( 1852) and declaring a doctrine of 'lapse' to acquire princely states which failed to produce heirs. He centralized authority within the * East India Company state, providing it with a modern system of record-keeping, reporting, and decision-making. He promoted the building of roads, railways, and ports, the extension of western education, and


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The Oxford Companion to British History
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Ppreace vii
  • Contributors ix
  • Acknowledgements xi
  • Note to the Reader xii
  • A 1
  • B 71
  • C 149
  • D 273
  • E 318
  • F 363
  • G 399
  • H 445
  • I 503
  • J 523
  • K 541
  • L 553
  • M 602
  • N 666
  • O 701
  • P 717
  • Q 782
  • R 785
  • S 831
  • T 907
  • U 941
  • V 951
  • W 960
  • Y 1008
  • Z 1015
  • Subject Index 1034


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