The shift to postmodernism
T owards the end of the 1980s, I was beginning to criticize the entire systems model, start to finish. "Constructing Reality: An Art of Lenses" was the result. I had much support from Harry Goolishian and Harlene Anderson, with whom I checked in from time to time. Harry had never really been a systemically oriented person anyway, and his scepticism about the cybernetic model continued to deepen and support mine.
Harry and Harlene were also beginning to question constructivism. Harry pointed out that this view was basically tied in with the biology of cognition and was extremely skull-bound. I thought he was right; examined closely, these ideas had very little to do with what happened in therapy from a relational point of view. For a while, along with Harry Goolishian and Lee Winderman ( 1988), I had tried to counteract this problem by putting the word "social" in front of constructivism. Then it became obvious that this misrepresented the constructivist position. The nervous system was portrayed by constructivists as "informationally closed" even though it was open from the standpoint of material exchanges with the environment. I had earlier used the image of separate bathy-