The sudden mushrooming of Pittsburgh's steel industry during the three decades between 1860 and 1890 was not fortuitous; rather it was the result of the demands of the Civil War and of the era of expansion that followed, and the energy and persistence of a small coterie of men, most of whom at the beginning of the period were not even of legal age. The history of the Carnegie Steel Company will serve admirably to illuminate the history of the industry, and it has the added advantages of being readily traceable and of being studded with dramatic events that make it as interesting as the wars of Napoleon or the intrigues of the French court.
The Carnegie Steel Company had its origin in 1858 on the site of modern Millvale, in an obscure forge consisting of one wooden trip hammer operated by the brothers Andrew and Anthony Kloman. The Klomans were Prussians who had learned their business in Treves, learned it so well that their axle forgings were in great demand by the rapidly expanding railroads that made Pittsburgh their center. In 1859, only a year after the business was started, the Klomans began to see the desirability of adding another hammer to their equipment and approached Thomas N. Miller, a youth of twenty-four who was