Animals and Men: Studies in Comparative Psychology

By David Katz | Go to book overview

CHAPTER VI NEEDS, DRIVES, INSTINCTS ANIMAL PSYCHOLOGY AND THE PSYCHOLOGY OF NEEDS

DURING recent years the approach to psychology from the point of view of "needs" has been gaining ground.1 The idea of needs has not only been of value in connecting various fields of investigation, which were formerly isolated, but has also led to new questions arising in present researches, which is of still greater importance. The concept of need in comparison with that of drive has the advantage of being nearer to reality, and assuredly is much less encumbered with hypotheses than is the concept of instinct. For the present it is, of course, impossible to work in animal psychology without the postulation of instincts, because they are necessary for the classification of certain forms of behaviour, but all those who understand the situation complain of the irritating sterility of this concept in any approach to new problems. It will be found, as a matter of fact, that the idea of needs will prove helpful in our attempt to find new explanations for certain types of instinctive behaviour.

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1
Compare the following-- D. Katz: "Hunger und Appetit." Leipzig, 1932. D. Katz: "Zur Grundlegung einer Bedürfnispsychologie." Z. Psych., 129, 1933. Among recent publications of investigators who have stressed the idea of needs, the following may be mentioned-- E. Claparède: "Education Functionelle." Neuchâtel et Paris, 1934. M. Pradines: "Philosophie de la Sensation." "La sensibilité élementaire, les sens primaires, le sens de besoin." Strasburg, 1932. J. S. Szymansky: "Psychologie vom Standpunkt der Abhängigkeit des Erkennens von den Lebensbedürfnissen." Leipzig, 1930. K. Lewin: "A Dynamic Theory of Personality." New York and London, 1935. E. C. Tolman: "Purposive Behaviour in Animals and Men." The Century Co., New York and London. E. C. Tolman and E. Brunswick: "The Organism and the Causal Texture of the Environment,"The Psychological Review, 42, 1935.

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