The Oxford History of the Crusades

By Jonathan Riley-Smith | Go to book overview

3 The Crusading Movement 1096-1274

SIMON LLOYD

FOLLOWING the Council of Clermont and his call to arms (described in Chapter 1), Pope Urban II remained in France until September 1096. The projected expedition to the East was not the only reason for his extended stay, but Urban was naturally concerned to provide leadership and guidance in the formative stages of what would become the First Crusade, very much his own creation. He corresponded with Bishop Adhémar of Le Puy, appointed as papal legate to the army, and with Raymond IV, count of Toulouse, the intended secular leader, whom he met at least twice in 1096. He urged various churchmen to preach the cross in France, and, as we have seen, he himself took the lead by proclaiming the crusade at a number of centres that he visited during his lengthy itinerary around southern, central, and western France in these months. He also dispatched letters and embassies beyond France, many in an attempt to control the response to his crusade summons.

Urban had intended that the crusade army should consist fundamentally of knights and other ranks who would be militarily useful. However, as the news of what he had proclaimed at Clermont spread through the West, so men and women of all social classes and occupations took the cross. Urban had lost control in the matter of personnel. One immediate consequence was the appalling violence unleashed against the Jews of northern France and the Rhineland, the first of a series of pogroms

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The Oxford History of the Crusades
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Preface v
  • Contents vii
  • List of Plates ix
  • List of Maps xi
  • 1 - The Crusading Movement and Historians 1
  • 2 - Origins 15
  • 3 - The Crusading Movement 1096-1274 35
  • 4 - The State of Mind of Crusaders to the East 1095-1300 68
  • 5 - Songs 90
  • 6 - The Latin East 1098-1291 111
  • 7 - Art in the Latin East 1098-1291 138
  • 8 - Architecture in the Latin East 1098-1571 155
  • 9 - The Military Orders 1120-1312 176
  • 10 - Islam and the Crusades 1096-1699 211
  • 11 - The Crusading Movement 1274-1700 258
  • 12 - The Latin East 1291-1669 291
  • 13 - The Military Orders 1312-1798 323
  • 14 - Images of the Crusades in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries 363
  • 15 - Revival and Survival Jonathan Riley-Smith 385
  • Chronology 390
  • Further Reading 402
  • Maps 417
  • Index 427
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