Unity and Diversity in Biochemistry: An Introduction to Chemical Biology

By Marcel Florkin; T. Wood | Go to book overview
two molecules of ATP. Reaction 10 is a reversible hydration of fumarate to malate in the presence of fumarase. Although, in the liver, malate may give rise to pyruvate, this is not the case in most tissues. The malate is dehydrogenated in the presence of malic dehydrogenase and DPN+ forming oxaloacetate and DPNH. This reaction is reversible. The oxaloacetic acid formed can, in its enolic form, react with acetyl-CoA to give citric acid and traverse the cycle once more.
IV. RESPIRATORY CHAINS
This name is applied to the series of carriers along which pass the protons and electrons liberated in the course of a dehydrogenation in the tricarboxylic acid cycle or other aerobic dehydrogenation before they reach oxygen and unite with it to form water. As we have seen, it is along the respiratory chain that by a series of phosphorylations coupled to it by a still unknown mechanism (see p. 144) the main quota of energy-rich bonds is formed and placed at the disposition of the cells.In the course of the successive dehydrogenations of the cycle, the greater part of the protons and electrons liberated pass to the same series of carriers. The first acceptor of the series being most often DPN+, DPNH appears as the principal "fuel" in cells.The successive transfers are the following:

Substrate + DPN+ → oxidized substrate + DPNH +H+ (ΔD variable)

DPNH + H+ + Flavopr. → DNN+ red Flavopr. (ΔF = -- 10 kcal)

red. Flavopr. + Ferricytochr. c → Flavopr. + Ferrocytochr. cF = -- 16 kcal)

Ferrocytochr. c + O2 → Ferricytochr. cF = -- 25 kcal)

The last reaction can be split up into the following stages:

Ferrocytochr. c + Ferricytochr. a → Ferricytochr. c + Ferrocytochr. a

Ferrocytochr. a + Ferrocytochr. a3 → Ferricytochr. a + Ferrocytochr. a3

Ferrocytochr. a3 + O → Ferricytochr. a3 +O


REFERENCES
KREBS H. A. ( 1954). The tricarboxylic acid cycle. Chemical Pathways of Metabolism, GREENBERG D. M. (Editor) vol. I, Academic Press, New York109-171.
OCHOA S. ( 1954) Enzymic mechanisms in the citric acid cycle. Advance. Enzymol., 15, 183-270.

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Unity and Diversity in Biochemistry: An Introduction to Chemical Biology
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • List of Abbreviations vii
  • Translator's Preface ix
  • Introduction xi
  • Part One xv
  • Chapter I - The Biosphere 1
  • Chapter II - Constituents of the Biosphere 7
  • References 14
  • References 24
  • References 30
  • References 37
  • References 43
  • References 56
  • Chapter III - Modes of Linkage by Covalent Bonds 57
  • References 60
  • References 62
  • References 77
  • References 82
  • Chapter IV - Macromolecules 83
  • References 85
  • References 93
  • References 107
  • References 111
  • Part Two - Enzymes and Biochemical Energetics 129
  • Chapter I - General Principles of Biochemical Energetics 131
  • References 150
  • Chapter II - Enzymes 151
  • References 176
  • Part Three - Chemical Reactions in the Biosphere 177
  • Introduction 179
  • Chapter I - Destructive and Non-Destructive Methods in Modern Biochemistry 181
  • References 182
  • References 184
  • References 185
  • Chapter II - Priming Reactions 186
  • References 197
  • References 199
  • References 207
  • References 209
  • References 223
  • Chapter III - Biosyntheses 229
  • Part Four - Topobiochemistry and Cellular Regulation 271
  • Chapter I - Cellular Topochemistry 273
  • Conclusions 280
  • References 280
  • Chapter II - Cellular Regulation 282
  • References 286
  • Part Five - Biochemical Diversity 287
  • Chapter I - Some Aspects of Biochemical Diversity 289
  • References 303
  • Chapter II - The Inheritance of Biochemical Characteristics 304
  • References 316
  • Chapter III - Biochemistry and Taxonomy 317
  • References 332
  • Chapter IV - Biochemical Evolution 333
  • References 335
  • References 345
  • Part Six - The Metabolism of the Biosphere 347
  • Introduction 349
  • Chapter I - Entry into the Biosphere 351
  • References 365
  • Chapter II - Departure from the Biosphere 366
  • References 370
  • Chapter III - The Cycles 371
  • References 380
  • Index 381
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