CHAPTER ONE

THE CONTINUATION OF THE MEDITERRANEAN
CIVILIZATION IN THE WEST AFTER THE
GERMANIC INVASIONS

I. "Romania" before the Germans

Of all the features of that wonderful human structure, the Roman Empire,1 the most striking, and also the most essential, was its Mediterranean character. Although in the East it was Greek, and in the West, Latin, its Mediterranean character gave it a unity which impressed itself upon the provinces as a whole. The inland sea, in the full sense of the term Mare nostrum, was the vehicle of ideas, and religions, and merchandise.2 The provinces of the North -- Belgium, Britain, Germany, Raetia, Noricum, Pannonia -- were merely outlying ramparts against barbarism. Life was concentrated on the shores of the great lake. Without it Rome could not have been supplied with African wheat. It was more beneficent than ever now that it could be navigated in perfect security, since piracy had long disappeared. On the roads that led thither from all the provinces the traffic of these provinces converged upon the sea. As one travelled away from it civilization became more rarefied. The last great city of the North was Lyons. Trèves owed its greatness only to its rank of temporary capital. All the other cities of importance -- Carthage, Alexandria, Naples, Antioch -- were on or near the sea.

____________________
1
The term Romania, denoting all the countries conquered by Rome, made its appearance in the 4th century. EUG. ALBERTINI, "L'Empire romain", in the collection PEUPLES ET CIVILISATION, published under the editorship of L. HALPHEN and PH. SAGNAC, vol. iv, Paris, 1929, p. 388. Cf. A. GRENIER'S review of HOLLAND ROSE, "The Mediterranean in the Ancient World", 2nd ed., 1934, REVUE HISTORIQUE, vol. 173, 1934, p. 194.
2
It was undoubtedly the Mediterranean that prevented the dyarchy following the reign of Theodosius from giving rise to two Empires.

-17-

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