CHAPTER III
CRITICISMS OF THE EARLY 'DOCTRINE OF INSTINCTS'
IN all, there seem to be ten such criticisms, and they will be dealt with in accordance with their degree of relevance and importance.
1. The Behaviourist Criticism
The criticism offered by the Behaviourists was the most radical and extreme of all the criticisms we shall have to consider. Since it exerted such a wide and pernicious influence upon subsequent psychology, especially in America, we shall discuss it at some length.The Behaviourist view in its most extreme form was expounded by Watson, and can be formulated in the following way.First, we are given two basic assertions:
1. We have no right to posit perceptions and feelings in the animals or persons we are observing. In so far as we are scientific, we must take into account only those stimuli and responses which are strictly observable.
2. Similarly, we have no right to introduce into our explanations such immaterial concepts as 'motives' or 'purposive tendencies'.

Given these two propositions, Watson argues, it can be said that: 'There is no such thing as the inheritance of temperament, capacity, mental constitution or mental characteristics . . .' and, '. . . all that is inherited is a pattern reaction, the separate elements of which are movements principally of the striped muscles.' All that is inherited is a number of reflexes. These, from the very outset of the individual's life are subjected to processes of conditioning which are continuous and complex, and which give rise to 'Compound-Reflexes'. Consequently: 'all so-called instinctive behaviour is really learned behaviour.' The intricate sequences of action which have been termed instinctive by the writers we have considered, are really the outcome of a long process of learning, taking place throughout the course of the individual's development.

The Behaviourists support their argument by reference to the 'Lawof Parsimony'

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