CHAPTER VII
SOME COMMENTS ON THE ETHOLOGICAL ACCOUNT, THE PSYCHO-ANALYTIC ACCOUNT, AND THE EARLY DOCTRINE OF INSTINCTS

WE have now completed our review of the three main bodies of work on the subject of Instinct which we set out to investigate. In the next chapter we shall bring the various threads of our discussion together in an attempt to achieve a satisfactory synthesis. Before doing this, however, it will be of use to spend a little time in considering certain points of interest which have emerged from our discussion so far, and in making a few further points of criticism which it did not seem expedient (for purposes of clear exposition) to make earlier. This chapter therefore comprises a few after-thoughts on our previous discussion, a sorting out of some of the more significant points which have emerged, and a preparatory discussion for the synthesis of the next chapter.


Some Criticisms of Comparative Ethology

Our comments in this section fall into two groups. Firstly, it is necessary to mention certain differences of opinion among the ethologists themselves, and secondly, we must return to a brief reconsideration of the relation between Ethology and Psychology which we mentioned whilst discussing the work of Tinbergen and Lorenz.


1. Differences of Opinion with regard to certain Ethological Concepts

It must be pointed out that certain of the concepts which are used quite confidently by Tinbergen and Lorenz are not yet accepted by all other contributors to the Ethological school. Brief mention might be made of some of these critical attitudes.

Whereas Tinbergen is prepared to postulate the importance of 'Intrinsic Central Nervous Factors' in the causation of innate behaviour and tends to emphasise the central control of patterns and rhythms of locomotion (though he does this guardedly, after a careful review of the

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