ZAMORA, Bernice ( 1938-), born and raised in Colorado, has won an extensive reputation largely on the barn of a single volume, Restless Serpents ( 1976), a collection both of her own poems and those of José Antonio Burciaga. Her poetry has been notable, in both Spanish and English, for its subtlety of idiom, her command, often colloquial, of a distinctively crafted chicana speaking voice. Even so, Robinson ★Jeffers and Theodore ★Roethke have been prime influences. Her versatility shows through on a number of related fronts: as a poet of feminine sexuality and consciousness ( 'Gata Poem', 'Notes From a Chicana "Coed"' or 'When We Are Able'), of childhood ( 'Angelita's Utility'), of eroticism ( 'Pueblo 1950', 'Bearded Lady', and 'And All Flows Past'), of chicano linguistic and cultural tradition ( 'Let the Giants Cackle'), of landscape and place (the Jeffers-like 'California'), and of creativity itself (the impressively wrought title-poem 'Restless Serpents', along- side 'Without Bark' or 'Metaphor and Reality'). Long a critic of 'Anglo' oppression and insensitivity to cultural difference, she none the less avoids all polemical calls to arms or self-pity. She especially parodies stereotypes, both cultural and sexual.
See Restless Serpents (Menlo Park, Calif., 1976); also Flory Canto IV and V: An Anthology of Chicano Literature, ed. Bernice Zamora and José Armas ( Albuquerque, NM, 1980); and Contemporary Chicana Poetry: A Crimical Approach to an Emerging Literature, by Marta Ester Sánchez ( Berkeley, Calif., 1985). [ ARL
ZATURENSKA, Marya (Alexandrovna) ( 1902-82), was bona in Kiev, Russia. Her mother's family was Polish, and worked for generations for the Radziwill family. Her father served in the Russian Army during the Russo- Japanese War and the Boxer Rebellion. As a little girl Zaturenska loved Polish and Russian folk-songs, and before she could read or write, created lyrics for the tunes. In 1909, when she was 8, the family moved to America, residing on Henry Street m New York City near the Settlement House. She was educated in public schools, but had to drop out. She attended high school at night, worked in a factory by day--and wrote poetry. Her first published poems appeared in national magazines, including ★Poetry, when she was still in her teens, and she won the John Reed Memorial Award in 1922, when she was 20. She graduated from the University of Wisconsin Library School in 1925. That same year she married the poet and critic Horace ★Gregory, of a Patrician Milwaukee family. They later collaborated on anthologies and A History of American Poetry, 1900-40 ( New York, 1946).
Threshold and Hearth, her first collection, appeared in 1934. It received the Shelley Memorial Award. But it was her second book, Cold Morning Sky, which put her on the literary map. Published in 1937--a year which saw new collections by ★ Bogan, H.D. ( Hilda ★Doolittle), ★ Jeffers, ★ Millay, ★ Pound, ★ Stevens, and ★ Tate, among others--it was awarded the Pulitzer Prize. It was reprinted twice the following year.
Her greatest influence was the English Decadent school, particularly Christina Rossetti, of whom she wrote a biography. Zaturenska's meditative and mystical lyrics are admired for their delicacy, mastery of metre and rhyme, and