Bagenal, Nicholas ( 1508-91), from the English midlands, made marshal of the army and granted Newry with the lordships of Mourne and Carlingford in 1548. He built up Newry as a mainly Gaelic town. In 1577* Sidney made him chief commissioner of Ulster, in the hope of eventually erecting a *provincial presidency. Bagenal helped contain the * O'Neills, first Turlough and then Hugh, but his authority never extended beyond south-east Ulster. The marshal disliked the interference of other English colonists and administrators, especially *Perrot, with whom he quarrelled violently in 1587. His son Henry Bagenal succeeded him as marshal and was killed at the battle of the *Yellow Ford. HM
Baginbun is immortalized in the rhyme 'At the creek of Baginbun ∣ Ireland was lost and won', first attested in Meredith Hanmer Chronicle of Ireland ( 1571), where it was applied to the landing place of Robert* fitz Stephen in 1169. Baginbun, in fact, has been identified as Dún Domnaill, the landing place in 1170 of * Raymond le Gros, who erected a fortification there, repulsed an attack by the men of Waterford, and thereby secured a foothold in Leinster. MTF
Bagwell, Richard ( 1840-1928), gentleman-historian, born in Clonmel, Co. Tipperary, educated at Harrow and Oxford. The son of John Bagwell, *Liberal MP for Clonmel 1857-74, Bagwell wrote a number of anti- *home rule articles in the Dublin University Magazine. His life's work was Ireland under the Tudors (3 vols., 1885-90) and Ireland under the Stuarts and during the Interregnum (3 vols., 1909- 16). His scholarship, based largely on printed sources, was solid and balanced if somewhat uncritical. Standish O'Grady in his populist Red Hugh's Captivity ( 1889) asked: 'Has the reader ever rambled through Ireland under the Tudors on a holiday? Does he desire another pleasure trip of the sort?' HM
baile biataigh, see BALLYBOE.
baking, see BREAD.
Bale, John ( 1495-1563), a pugnacious English reformer who served as bishop of Ossory 1552-3. A Carmelite friar, Bale was born at Dunwich in Suffolk and educated at Cambridge University. He converted to Protestantism in the 1530s, and in 1540 had to flee to the Continent. There he began his broad-ranging scholarly career, as a bibliographer, Protestant dramatist, and highly influential commentator on the Book of Revelation. On Edward VI's succession in 1547 Bale returned to England, but, disappointed of advancement, he accepted the bishopric of Ossory in 1552. His appointment was an attempt by the English authorities to impose a firmly Protestant prelate on a strategically important diocese. Bale's entertaining account (in his Vocacyon) of his brief time as bishop provides a unique insight into the impact of English Protestantism in an Irish context. Though a few people may have responded positively, local reaction to the new religion was hostile and even, after the news of Edward's death and the accession of the Catholic Mary, violent. Fearing for his life, Bale fled from Ireland, never to return. AF
Balfour, Arthur ( 1848-1930), 1st earl of Balfour. Balfour succeeded his uncle Lord Salisbury as Conservative prime minister 1902-5. As *chief secretary for Ireland 1887-91 he influenced Conservative Irish policy for a generation. Intellectual, sceptical, and uninspiring, he was a ruthless administrator. He became known as 'Bloody Balfour' after the 'Mitchelstown massacre' in 1887, when police fired on an angry crowd, and his tenure in Ireland was dominated by resolute efforts to resist the *Plan of Campaign. He introduced 'perpetual' *coercion legislation in 1887. But he was also associated with what came to be called *'constructive unionism', establishing the *Congested Districts Board, 1891, and supporting proposals for a Catholic university. Intellectually he despised nationalism; he probably despised Ulster *Unionism too, but gave it pragmatic respect, especially after the *devolution crisis. He expected