Notation

Typographical emphasis

In example sentences, indefinite pronouns are always highlighted by boldface. SMALL CAPITALS are used in examples to indicate sentence accent (especially in § 5.7) and to highlight important terms.


Italics vs. roman

Examples that illustrate language-particular phenomena are printed in italics. Whenever a semantic or pragmatic phenomenon is illustrated that (presumably) is not subject to cross-linguistic variation, English examples are used and printed in roman type, thus showing that the example could have been illustrated by data from any language. Thus, when an English example appears in italics, reference is made to a particular property of English, and when it appears in roman, reference is made to language in general.


Interlinear glosses

Special interlinear glosses are given throughout for languages other than English (although occasionally they are omitted in examples from other well-known languages, when the context allows it). These glosses are usually not full morpheme- by-morpheme glosses, but only word-by-word glosses because this information is usually sufficient. For the conventions used in interlinear glosses, see Lehmann ( 1982b).


Alternatives

Sometimes the behaviour of two different expressions is shown in one sentence. The best way of doing this would be by using curly brackets, as in (i).

(i) Someone
Somebody
has come.

However, this notation creates typographical difficulties and requires additional space. I therefore use the following convention: If both alternatives are grammatical, they are separated by a slash (sometimes corresponding to a slash in the translation), e.g.

(ii) Kto-to/kto-nibud' zvonil?

'Did someone/anyone call?'

Possible ambiguities in the scope of the slash are avoided by applying the following

-xv-

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