Appendix A.
The Data of the 40-Language Sample

The distributional schemas of the languages of the 40-language sample were presented in § 4.4. In this appendix I list the indefinite pronouns of the 40 languages and give examples of the most important uses of these indefinites. These data are not complete and conclusive, especially for those languages for which I could not consult with native speakers (Latin, Catalan, Serbian/Croatian, Yakut, Nanay, Hausa, Swahili). But the data of the 33 languages for which I consulted native speaker are also probably deficient in some respects. Clearly, one individual cannot control data from so many languages in a perfect way. As I observed in § 2.1, typological breadth necessarily implies some loss of depth in individual languages. I add this appendix to my work in order to make it easier for the reader to link the abstract typological generalizations with concrete data.


A.1. German

A.1.1. Inventory . German (Germanic, Indo-European) has three main series of indefinite pronouns: (i) the irgend-series, (ii) the negative n-series, and (iii) the defective etwas-series.

interrogativeetwas-seriesirgend-seriesn-series
personwerjemandirgend-wer, irgend-jemandniemand
thingwasetwasirgend-was, irgend-etwasnichts
placewoirgend-wonirgends
timewannirgend-wannnie
mannerwieirgend-wie(auf keine
Weise)
determinerwelcher(ein)irgend-ein, irgend-welchekein

In addition, there is the determiner jeder 'any, every' (§ 6.5) and the time adverb je 'ever', which do not belong to any of the series. Also, the bare interrogatives wer, was, and wo (and marginally wann) are used as indefinites in the colloquial language (§ 7.3.1).

A.1.2. Origins . Middle High German had three series, a non-emphatic ete-series (ete-wer 'someone', ete-waz 'something', ete-wâ 'somewhere', etc. the origin of ete- is unknown), and a negative-polarity series marked by ie ('ever') (ie-man 'anyone'; cf. man 'man'; iht 'anything' < ie-wiht 'ever-thing'; iergen 'anywhere' < ie- + hwar-gin 'where-PT'). This distinction was given up, and etwas and jemand are now in the same series. A new series was created on the basis of the particle irgend (< iergen 'anywhere'), combined with the bare interrogatives or with jemand/etwas/ein. The n-series consists of the old negator ne combined with the old ie-series. The negative determiner kein (< dehhein) was formerly used in all negative-polarity environments and became restricted to negation only 200 years ago. On the history of jeder, see Kolb ( 1983).

-244-

Notes for this page

Add a new note
If you are trying to select text to create highlights or citations, remember that you must now click or tap on the first word, and then click or tap on the last word.
One moment ...
Default project is now your active project.
Project items

Items saved from this book

This book has been saved
Highlights (0)
Some of your highlights are legacy items.

Highlights saved before July 30, 2012 will not be displayed on their respective source pages.

You can easily re-create the highlights by opening the book page or article, selecting the text, and clicking “Highlight.”

Citations (0)
Some of your citations are legacy items.

Any citation created before July 30, 2012 will labeled as a “Cited page.” New citations will be saved as cited passages, pages or articles.

We also added the ability to view new citations from your projects or the book or article where you created them.

Notes (0)
Bookmarks (0)

You have no saved items from this book

Project items include:
  • Saved book/article
  • Highlights
  • Quotes/citations
  • Notes
  • Bookmarks
Notes
Cite this page

Cited page

Style
Citations are available only to our active members.
Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

(Einhorn, 1992, p. 25)

(Einhorn 25)

1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

Cited page

Bookmark this page
Indefinite Pronouns
Table of contents

Table of contents

Settings

Settings

Typeface
Text size Smaller Larger Reset View mode
Search within

Search within this book

Look up

Look up a word

  • Dictionary
  • Thesaurus
Please submit a word or phrase above.
Print this page

Print this page

Why can't I print more than one page at a time?

Help
Full screen
/ 368

matching results for page

    Questia reader help

    How to highlight and cite specific passages

    1. Click or tap the first word you want to select.
    2. Click or tap the last word you want to select, and you’ll see everything in between get selected.
    3. You’ll then get a menu of options like creating a highlight or a citation from that passage of text.

    OK, got it!

    Cited passage

    Style
    Citations are available only to our active members.
    Buy instant access to cite pages or passages in MLA, APA and Chicago citation styles.

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn, 1992, p. 25).

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences." (Einhorn 25)

    "Portraying himself as an honest, ordinary person helped Lincoln identify with his audiences."1

    1. Lois J. Einhorn, Abraham Lincoln, the Orator: Penetrating the Lincoln Legend (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1992), 25, http://www.questia.com/read/27419298.

    Cited passage

    Thanks for trying Questia!

    Please continue trying out our research tools, but please note, full functionality is available only to our active members.

    Your work will be lost once you leave this Web page.

    Buy instant access to save your work.

    Already a member? Log in now.

    Oops!

    An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.