The Data of the 40-Language Sample
The distributional schemas of the languages of the 40-language sample were presented in § 4.4. In this appendix I list the indefinite pronouns of the 40 languages and give examples of the most important uses of these indefinites. These data are not complete and conclusive, especially for those languages for which I could not consult with native speakers (Latin, Catalan, Serbian/Croatian, Yakut, Nanay, Hausa, Swahili). But the data of the 33 languages for which I consulted native speaker are also probably deficient in some respects. Clearly, one individual cannot control data from so many languages in a perfect way. As I observed in § 2.1, typological breadth necessarily implies some loss of depth in individual languages. I add this appendix to my work in order to make it easier for the reader to link the abstract typological generalizations with concrete data.
A.1.1. Inventory . German (Germanic, Indo-European) has three main series of indefinite pronouns: (i) the irgend-series, (ii) the negative n-series, and (iii) the defective etwas-series.
In addition, there is the determiner jeder 'any, every' (§ 6.5) and the time adverb je 'ever', which do not belong to any of the series. Also, the bare interrogatives wer, was, and wo (and marginally wann) are used as indefinites in the colloquial language (§ 7.3.1).
A.1.2. Origins . Middle High German had three series, a non-emphatic ete-series (ete-wer 'someone', ete-waz 'something', ete-wâ 'somewhere', etc. the origin of ete- is unknown), and a negative-polarity series marked by ie ('ever') (ie-man 'anyone'; cf. man 'man'; iht 'anything' < ie-wiht 'ever-thing'; iergen 'anywhere' < ie- + hwar-gin 'where-PT'). This distinction was given up, and etwas and jemand are now in the same series. A new series was created on the basis of the particle irgend (< iergen 'anywhere'), combined with the bare interrogatives or with jemand/etwas/ein. The n-series consists of the old negator ne combined with the old ie-series. The negative determiner kein (< dehhein) was formerly used in all negative-polarity environments and became restricted to negation only 200 years ago. On the history of jeder, see Kolb ( 1983).