Jack of Diamonds . See KNAVE OF DIAMONDS.
Jackson, A. Y. ( Alexander Young) ( 1882-1974). Canadian landscape painter, born in Montreal and active mainly in Toronto, where he settled in 1913 after extensive travels in Europe ( 1905, 1907-9, and 1911-13). Jackson was one of the leading artists of the *Group of Seven and in the latter part of his long career he became a venerated senior figure in Canadian painting. He visited almost every region of Canada, including the Arctic, and responded particularly to the hilly region of rural Quebec along the St Lawrence River. From 1921 he visited the area almost every spring, and the canvases he produced from sketches made there are regarded as his finest works. Their easy, rolling rhythms and rich colouring influenced many other Canadian landscape painters. Jackson moved to Ottawa in 1955 and in 1958 published his memoirs, A Painter's Country. He died at Kleinburg, Ontario.
Jacob, Max ( 1876-1944). French writer, painter, and draughtsman, a colourful figure in the Parisian art world in the early years of the 20th century. He was born in Quimper, the son of a tailor, and moved to Paris in 1894 to study law. After dropping out of his course, he took up journalism (including art criticism), then studied at the * Académie Julian. He was initially unsuccessful at both writing and painting, and he took various lowly jobs to stave off his dire poverty. In 1901 he became friends with * Picasso after seeing his first exhibition in Paris and leaving an admiring note at the gallery (*Vollard's). John *Richardson writes that 'The pale, thin gnome with strange, piercing eyes almost immediately assumed the role of mentor in Picasso's life . . . even if at first they had no language in common except mime and were in so many respects unalike. Jacob was Jewish and homosexual ("sodomite sans joie . . . mais avec ardour") and deeply insecure . . . However, he was infinitely perceptive about art as well as literature and an encyclopedia of erudition . . . He was also very, very funny' ( A Life of Picasso, vol. 1, 1991). During his third visit to Paris, in the winter of 1902-3, Picasso was going through a rare period of abject poverty himself and Jacob helped him out by letting him share his room, Picasso having the bed by day and Jacob by night; a few years later, after Picasso settled in Paris, he and Jacob were neighbours in the *Bateau-Lavoir. Jacob's other close friends in the art world included *Apollinaire and * Gris. His writings, which include poetry, novels, and children's stories, are marked by fantasy and verbal clowning, but also by sharp and ironic observation and intense self- examination. In 1909 he became a convert to Catholicism, although he continued to delve into the occult, and in 1921 he went into semimonastic retreat at St Benoît-sur-Loire, where he supported himself by painting, his work including pious religious scenes. However, he made visits to Paris, where his old dissolute ways overcame his new piety. In 1943, because he was Jewish, he was arrested by the Germans and sent to a concentration camp at Drancy. Picasso did nothing to save his old friend (their relationship had cooled in the 1930s). Instead, *Cocteau pulled strings to get him freed, but he died of pneumonia the day before he was to be released.
Jacobsen Georg . See ROLFSEN.
Jacquet Alain . See MEC ART.
Jagger, Charles Sargeant ( 1885-1934). British sculptor, best known for his war memorials--he is described by Alan Borg as 'the only major artist to have made his reputation in this way' ( War Memorials: From Antiquity to the Present, 1991). Jagger was born at