Quadriga. A group of four German abstract painters founded in Frankfurt in 1952: Karl Otto Götz ( 1914- ), Otto Greis ( 1913- ), Heinz Kreutz ( 1923- ), and Bernard Schultze ( 1915- ). They were later joined by Emil Schumacher ( 1912- ). Their work was a German version of *Art Informel. The group first exhibited at the Galerie Franck in Frankfurt in December 1952 with the title "'Neo-Expressionists'", but at the opening of the exhibition the writer Rena Hinds gave a speech in which he coined the name 'Quadriga' for the four artists. It referred to a Roman four-horsed chariot and was meant to suggest the energy of their work. Schultze and Schumacher went on to join the *Zen 49 group of abstract painters.
Quietism. See TONALISM.
Quinn, John (1870-1924). American lawyer, collector, and patron. Quinn was of Irish ancestry and came to collecting through purchasing manuscripts of Irish literary works. He did not start collecting paintings and sculpture until after the turn of the century, but he then rapidly became a major figure in the field of avant-garde art; indeed, he was described by Alfred H. *Barr as 'the greatest American collector of the art of his time'. He was legal representative to the *Armory Show ( 1913), and was a major lender to and purchaser at the exhibition. It introduced him to * Brancusi's work, and from then until his death eleven years later, Quinn was Brancusi's most important patron, buying most of his output. The other artists he patronized included Augustus *John, whom he met in London in 1909. John's biographer Michael Holroyd paints a very unattractive picture of Quinn: 'while being financially generous, he was a triumphantly mean man. His letters to Augustus and other artists and writers are always business letters, and almost always interchangeable . . . To lack of humour he prudently added lack of charm, and. . . . perfected the art of boredom . . . He ensnared his victims in the web of his money and inflicted on them his terrible jokes, appalling lectures, his deathly political harangues' ( Augustus John, 1976). The other artists whose work Quinn collected included *Epstein, * Gaudier-Brzeska (his interest in these two came through his friend Ezra *Pound), * Matisse, * Picasso, and * Rousseau, as well as various Americans. Quinn also played an important role in creating a buoyant art market in New York by successfully campaigning for works of art less than 20 years old to be exempt from import duty. His collection was known only to his friends during his lifetime, but in 1926 part of it was shown in a memorial exhibition at the New York Art Center. The collection was sold at auction in Paris and New York in 1926-7. Its dispersal encouraged A. E. *Gallatin to open his own collection to the public as the Museum of Living Art in New York.
Quinn, Marc. See YOUNG BRITISH ARTISTS.
Quintanilla, Isabel. See SPANISH REALISTS.