Creating a European Economic Space*
The recent dramatic broadening of the 'political agenda' -- Single Market, Disarmament, Political and Economic Reforms in East European Countries, and German Unification -- has spurred efforts by EFTA countries, to negotiate a global framework agreement on a European Economic Space (EES) with the European Communities.
Descriptive prediction, never the proper province of lawyers, is made more difficult by the existence of these many new variables or parameters and by the apparent elusiveness of such notions as the 'Fortress Europe' or the 'European Economic Space'. Once again Europe appears to be back on the drawing board. Designers manifest a new sense of purpose and urgency. Traffic in reformist ideas is intense and has noticeably increased, economically, politically, and across the former East-West divide.
The present survey of legal developments in EC-EFTA relations is divided into three parts. The first part sets out developments leading to the beginning of intensified EC-EFTA co-operation. The second part offers a survey of the so-called Luxembourg process, enlarged, intensified, and accelerated co-operation activities between EFTA countries and the EC. This part is subdivided into sections (A) and (B) covering the years 1984-7 and 1988-9 respectively. The final part presents an outline of legal and institutional questions involved in a future EES framework agreement at the eve of negotiations.
Post-war European economic integration was based on two different methods or approaches, the 'international' ( OEEC, EFTA, OECD) and the so-called 'supranational' (ECSC, EEC). Most if not all difficulties in devising common institutional arrangements for the EES stem from this fundamental difference.
To the Community economic integration constitutes an instrument for the ultimate achievement of a political union. The Community has developed common policies in important sectors of the economy which are devised and carried out by its institutions. In particular, it carries out a____________________