THE DISPUTED ST. CROIX
THE international dispute over what was the St. Croix River, defined by the peace treaty as the eastern boundary of the United States, began on this side of the Atlantic before the treaty was signed on the other. It was precipitated by one who knew the country as few knew it and who had a unique interest in it. He was John Allan, a Scot who had grown up in Nova Scotia to be such a good New Englander that he early ran off to join the Revolution and then bent all his energies to stirring up the red men, New England, and the Continental Congress against the British in his old province. Getting little response beyond words of encouragement, a colonel's commission, and a congressional appointment as superintendent of Indians, he undertook almost singlehanded to use the red men to tear away from Nova Scotia the St. John Valley and the north shore of the Bay of Fundy. Having failed to win this larger territory during the war, he was eager to gain as much of it as the peace terms seemed to allow, and his quick eye soon caught an opportunity.
On August 11, 1783, Allan wrote his first epistle to the people of St. Andrews warning them that they were settling on the American side of the new international border. His challenge rested on the Massachusetts belief that the St. Croix was the river then, and still, known as the Magaguadavic, which falls into Passamaquoddy Bay on the east side; whereas the town of St. Andrews was being founded on the assumption that the St. Croix was the stream then commonly called the Schoodic, emptying into Passamaquoddy Bay on its upper west side, if indeed it was not the Cobscook, which flows into the bay of the same name far down the western side of Passamaquoddy Bay.
Behind the international dispute which thus began lay a dormant inter- colonial dispute of pre-Revolutionary days. It arose at the end of the Seven Years' War, when the St. Croix was first named as the boundary of Nova Scotia in a royal commission to a governor of that province. In 1764. Governor Bernard of Massachusetts, the adjoining colony, sent a surveyor named John Mitchel1 to survey Passamaquoddy Bay and to determine the position of the dividing river. He reported that the Indians identified the Magaguadavic as the St. Croix, but he also observed that____________________