This essay deals primarily with books and articles published after 1945; those in English appear first, followed by those in German.
The literature on Bismarck and the unification of Germany is continuously expanding and there seems to be no end in sight. On Bismarck alone, a listing published several years ago mentioned over six thousand items ( Karl E. Born, Bismarck Bibliographie [ Cologne, 1966 ]).
In English the foremost biography is O. Pfianze, Bismarck and the Development of Germany ( Princeton, 1963-), but only the first volume covering the period 1815-71 has been published to date. Shorter biographies include: A. J. P. Taylor , Bismarck: The Man and the Statesman ( New York, 1955), a provocative and stimulating study; W. N. Medlicott, Bismarck and Modern Germany ( Mystic, Conn., 1965), a concise, well-informed account; E. Eyck, Bismarck and the German Empire ( London, 1950), a condensed translation of his three-volume work (see below); W. M. Simon, Germany in the Age of Bismarck ( New York, 1968), an introductory essay with a documentary section; and C. Sempell, Otto von Bismarck ( New York, 1972), which concentrates on the chancellor's personality.
The economic, intellectual, and social aspects of the period prior to unification are covered by the excellent volumes of T. S. Hamerow: Restoration, Revolution, Reaction: Economics and Politics in Germany, 1815-1871 ( Princeton, 1958); The Social Foundations of German Unification, 1858-1871, vol 1, Ideas and Institutions ( Princeton, 1969), vol. 2, Struggles and Accomplishments ( Princeton, 1972).
On the Customs Union, A. Price, The Evolution of the Zollverein ( Ann Arbor, 1949) deals with ideas and institutions between 1815 and 1833 and supplements W. O. Henderson, The Zollverein ( Chicago, 1939). I. N. Lambi, Free Trade and Protection in Germany, 1868-1879;, ( Wiesbaden, 1963), is a reexamination of Bismarck's tariff policy and its consequences, and H. Rosenberg, "Political and Social Consequences of the Great Depression of 1873-96 in Central Europe," Economic History Review 12 ( 1943), is an excellent survey of a hitherto much neglected subject. Frank B. Tipton, "The National Consensusin German Economic History"