Chronology of Animal Welfare in Europe, 1964-1995
|1964||In England, Ruth Harrison wrote Animal Machines, which stimulated concerns and|
led to development of animal welfare policies and regulations in several western Eu-
ropean countries. This book initiated much of the public concern for the welfare of
farm animals under modern production methods.
|1965||The report of the Technical Committee, commonly referred to as the Brambell Report,|
defined certain principles of animal welfare and recommended certain mandatory.
standards in the care and production of food animals in the United Kingdom. The
Brambell Report set the stage for animal welfare policy and regulations. This report
identified the "five freedoms" that established the basis for animal welfare controls:
(1) freedom from thirst, hunger, and malnutrition; (2) appropriate comfort and shel-
ter; (3) the prevention or rapid diagnosis and treatment of injury, disease, or infesta-
tion; (4) freedom from fear; (5) freedom to display most normal patterns of behavior.
|1967||The United Kingdom Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food set up the Farm Ani-|
mal Welfare Advisory Committee, later renamed and enlarged as the Farm Animal
Welfare Council, as a response to the Brambell Report.
|1968||Parliament passed the Agriculture (Miscellaneous Provisions Act, which recom-|
mended codes of practices for the housing and management for intensively kept live-
|1969||The Council of Europe issued the European Convention for the Protection of Ani-|
mals during International Transport.
|1971||The United Kingdom Ministry of Agriculture issued its first Codes of Recommenda-|
tions for the Welfare of Livestock, which at that time were advisory, not mandatory.
The Swedish parliament passed a law that required that new housing for ani-
mals must be approved by the County Agricultural Board; the board would consider
animal protection before government credit could be obtained. In 1973, the law was
extended to include all remodeling and construction whether government credit was
involved or not.