skinned characters are given intellectual prominence in the book, and what "Harper acknowledged was the need to forge a new, alternative vision, a new role for black intellectuals. In this regard, Iola Leroy was a textbook for the educated black person in the crisis of disenfranchisement, lynching, and the Jim Crow laws" ( Carby93).
Furthermore, Iola Leroy now needs to be read in the context of Harper's other three novels, unknown at the time that this criticism was written. Of the three novels, one has white protagonists, one has mulatto protagonists, and the third has an entirely black cast of characters, grappling with the problems of the emerging black middle class without any discussion of mixed-race characters at all. As critics begin to recast their opinions in light of this important literary discovery, new approaches will certainly emerge.
"The Two Offers." Anglo-African Magazine, 1859.
Minnie's Sacrifice. First published serially in The Christian Recorder, 1869.
Sowing and Reaping. First published serially in The Christian Recorder, 1876- 1877.
Trial and Triumph. First published serially in The Christian Recorder, 1888- 1889.
Iola Leroy; or, Shadows Uplifted. Philadelphia: Garrigues Brothers, 1892.
Forest Leaves. N.p., 1835 (?).
Poems on Miscellaneous Subjects. Boston: J. B. Yerrinton & Son, 1854.
Moses: A Story of the Nile. Philadelphia: Merrihew & Son, 1869.
Poems. Philadelphia: Merrihew & Son, 1871.
Sketches of Southern Life. N.p., 1872.
The Martyr of Alabama and Other Poems. N.p., 1894.
Atlanta Offering: Poems. Philadelphia: Ferguson, 1895.
Atlanta Offering: Poems. Philadelphia: 1006 Bainbridge Street, 1896.
Idylls of the Bible. Philadelphia: 1006 Bainbridge Street, 1901.
Complete Poems of Frances E. W. Harper. New York: Oxford University Press, 1988.
"For the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of the Home for Aged and Infirm Colored Persons" and "For the Dedication of the Parker Annex to the Home for the Aged and Infirm Colored Persons." In "Frances Harper and the Old People: Two Recently Discovered Poems." The Griot ( Southern Conference on Afro-American Studies) 4 (winter-summer 1995): 52-56.
The Sparrow's Fall and Other Poems. N.p., n.d.
Ammons, Elizabeth. "Legacy Profile: Frances Ellen Watkins Harper (1825-1911)." Legacy: A Journal of Nineteenth-Century American Women 2 (fall 1985): 61-66.