have more living offspring. At Gombe, the top five female meat consumers produced on average 3.6 living offspring, while the bottom
five produced on average only 1.4 ( McGrew 1992). This meat was
largely received from males, as were bananas and sugar cane when
shared, and males favored females with whom they had practiced
restrictive mating. Male involvement in nonopportunistic mating
was not correlated with dominance rank (or age, or agonistic behavior directed to females), but was correlated with generosity in banana
sharing and time spent grooming and in association with females.
That is, females chose to conceive with generous, attentive males, or
with the highest-ranking male. For details, see Tutin ( 1975).Thus, ultimate reproductive success is a result of a number of
interrelated proximate factors: status and fertility are a function of
affinitive social relations and health; health is a function of nutrition;
nutrition is a function of diet; and diet is a function of status.
Thanks to L.F. Marchant for critical comments on the manuscript, to C.E.G.
Tutin and R.W. Wrangham for unpublished data, and S. Eggebrecht and F.
Somerville for word processing.
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