Long Time Coming: Racial Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan South, 1940-1990

By Mark A. Fossett; M. Therese Seibert | Go to book overview

Summary

This concludes our review of issues relating to measurement of the variables used in our analysis. We turn now to a descriptive analysis of how inequality and its potential determinants are distributed across southern, nonmetropolitan counties and how they have changed over time.


Notes
1.
Income data for families and unrelated individuals is tabulated by race in 1950. Family income is problematic because it varies with family structure which varies by race over time. This problem is made worse when unrelated individuals are combined with families.
2.
By construction, percentile scores follow a rectangular distribution with a mean of 50 and a standard deviation of 28.9 (calculated from a formula provided in Freund 1962:146). In individual-level data for 1980, the mean and standard deviation for Nam-Powers status scores are 51 and 26.
3.
In the two group situation, the logical range of group differences in mean percentile scores is -50 to 50. Nam-Powers status scores are the average of two percentile scores (one for education and one for income) and group differences in mean status will thus have a maximum logical range of -50 to 50 when the two percentile scores are perfectly correlated (and less otherwise). The logically possible range is greater in local areas and in multi-group situations, but this is possibility is not realized in our data.
4.
The two measures correlate at 0.92 or higher in every decade.
5.
As defined by the Census Bureau, the South includes the following states: Alabama, Arkansas, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas, Virginia, and West Virginia. The census South also includes Washington, DC, but it is entirely metropolitan.
6.
As noted below, occupation tabulations for the Black population were based variously on "Negro," Nonwhite, and Black. The presence of significant numbers of "Nonblack" Nonwhites thus affected changes in measured occupation inequality. This sample restriction primarily affected counties in Oklahoma where Nonwhite data often included a high proportion of Native Americans. The restriction was applied based on 1980 data. Persons in the "other" race category were not included among Nonwhites if they were of Spanish origin. Nonwhites thus included Blacks, Asian and Pacific Islanders, Native Americans, and other Nonwhites who were not of Spanish origin. In several counties, persons of Spanish origin identified themselves as "other" on the race question at a high rate in 1980 where in previous years this fraction had been very small.

-89-

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Long Time Coming: Racial Inequality in the Nonmetropolitan South, 1940-1990
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page v
  • Contents vii
  • Tables and Figures xi
  • Preface xv
  • 1 - Introduction 1
  • Notes 16
  • 2 - Determinants of Racial Inequality in Nonmetropolitan Areas 18
  • Notes 70
  • 3 - Measurement Issues 76
  • Notes 89
  • 4 - Trends in Inequality 91
  • Notes 126
  • 5 - Cross-Sectional Analyses 129
  • Notes 156
  • 6 - Longitudinal Analyses 159
  • Notes 185
  • 7 - Overview and Discussion 187
  • Appendix A - Measuring Inequality 195
  • Notes 224
  • Appendix B - Measuring Inequality with Census Occupation Data 229
  • Notes 246
  • Appendix C - Measures 248
  • Notes 258
  • References 261
  • Index 273
  • About the Book and Authors 285
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