Given that repeated-measures of personality questionnaires on monolingual populations have not detected the variations observed in this study, the importance of the present findings lies less in the number of differences detected than in the discovery that measurable differences can be observed. The between-group (English-language) differences argue for a strong cultural influence on CPI responses. There is at present no obvious reason to doubt that cultural influences are a significant factor in accounting for the within-group (between-language) differences measured in this study.
A question remains whether within-group, between-language differences reflect between-language personality differences. If the between-language, within-group differences in scores on the CPI scales are due solely to differences in cultural norms, then the difference between L1 and English on any scale should correspond to the difference between the L1 score on that scale and the English norm. Similarly, the difference between English and L1 on any scale should correspond to the difference between the English score and the L1 norm for that scale. Correlations between these differences were calculated and no significant relationships were found. We can thus conclude that the differing cultural norms of each of the differing versions of the CPI used did not produce the within-group, between-language differences noted. That similar data exist using a markedly different measure of personality ( Hull, 1990) suggests that these findings are robust and one is thus left with the conclusion that these differences must reflect language-related differences in personality.
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