Systems of North American Witchcraft and Sorcery

By Deward E. Walker Jr. | Go to book overview

CHAPTER II
PUEBLO WITCHCRAFT AND MEDICINE

Florence H. Ellis

Everyone has heard of the Southwestern Pueblos. Most people tend to think of them as a unit and once in a while startle the professional anthropologist with the question "And what is the Pueblo language?" There is no Pueblo language. The Pueblos are grouped together because they share a sedentary agricultural style of life, with baskets, pottery, and weaving well developed. Their social organization is complex and well integrated but quite different in different Pueblo areas, and all have elaborate religious calendars and ceremonies. Their languages fall into four different groups, and in details of culture the Pueblos show the same four major divisions.

The most western of the living Pueblos are the Hopi (See Figure 6) who occupy three mesas in northern Arizona and, today, several villages at the foot of the mesas and one other village almost 40 miles to the west. Their speech is classified as Hopic or as a division of Shoshonean, under the broad heading of Ute-Aztecan. The most eastern of the Pueblos are the Rio Grande tribes, the majority of whom speak one of the Tanoan languages (Tiwa, Tewa, Towa), also classified under Ute-Aztecan or as a close relative. The Tiwa-speaking Pueblos fall into two groups, the northern, with Taos and Picuris, and the southern, with Isleta and Sandia. The Pueblos of San Juan, Santa Clara, San Ildefonso, Tesuque, Nambe, and Pojoaque all are Tewa-speaking. Jémez alone represents the Towa division of Tanoan. East of the Hopi is Zuni, linguistically isolated, once surmised to be related to the Tanoan group of languages and people and more recently suggested to be related to the California Penutians in language. The Keresan-speaking Pueblos fall into western and eastern groups. Between Zuni and the Rio Grande are the Western Keres, Acoma and Laguna, and directly in the Rio Grande drainage are the Eastern Keres, Zia, Santa Ana, San Felipe, Santa Domingo, and Cochiti. At present Keresan cannot be related to any of the other Pueblo languages or certainly to any other language. Sapir placed it in the Hokan-Siouan stock but published nothing to support his conjecture.

The Pueblos usually are divided into two large cultural units, the western, in which are Hopi, Zuni, Acoma, and Laguna, and the eastern, which includes all the others. Although the Western Pueblos do carry some patterns in common with the Eastern, the division becomes more meaningful if one thinks in terms of a general gradient of emphasis upon specific traits through all the Pueblos, some diminishing in emphasis from east to west and others diminishing in emphasis from west to east.

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Systems of North American Witchcraft and Sorcery
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface iii
  • Table of Contents v
  • Contents vi
  • Introduction 1
  • References Cited 9
  • Chapter I - Western Apache Witchcraft 11
  • Chapter II - Pueblo Witchcraft and Medicine 37
  • References Cited 70
  • Chapter III - Witchcraft in Tecospa and Tepepan 73
  • References Cited 92
  • Chapter IV - Two Views of Obeah and Witchcraft 95
  • References Cited 108
  • Notes 122
  • References Cited 123
  • Chapter V - Sorcery in Santiago El Palmar 125
  • References Cited 145
  • Chapter VI - Introduction Skokomish Sorcery, Ethics, and Society 147
  • Appendix 5 166
  • References Cited 181
  • References Cited 182
  • Chapter VII - Menomini Witchcraft 183
  • Chapter VIII - Witchcraft AMong Kaska Indians 221
  • References Cited 235
  • Chapter IX - Iroquois Witchcraft at Six Nations 239
  • References Cited 262
  • References Cited 264
  • Chapter X - Sorcery Among the Nez Perces 267
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