Systems of North American Witchcraft and Sorcery

By Deward E. Walker Jr. | Go to book overview
ularly in the case of vowels. Rough equivalents of special consonant symbols are: c like ts, č like ch in church, ł something like English thl, a glottalized lateral affricate like a strongly exploded tl, q like k but articulated farther back, š like sh in hush, x like ch in Scottish loch, x + ̣ similar but articulated farther back; small raised w indicates labialized articulation (kw w similar to qu in queen), following apostrophe (raised comma) indicates glottalization. Rough (English) equivalents of vowel symbols include: a as in father, α as vowel in but, e as vowel in pain, ε as vowel in hat, ɔ as vowel in first syllable of balloon, i as vowel in feet, ℓ as vowel in fit, o as in role, as vowel in paw, u as in rule; raised dot after vowel symbol indicates increased length; acute accent over symbol denotes stress.
6. Cf. Kluckhohn 1944:85, and Levine 1962.
7. The term "technology" is used here and throughout to denote physical means for affecting the environment, involving material causality and, usually, artifacts and processes for using them. This is intended as a contrastive rubic to "power" but it should be noted that the contrast is clearer in the ethnographer's "modern" or "Western" framework than in that of Skokomish culture. The ordinary aboriginal Skokomish view was probably that formulated in Corollary l.c., to the effect that power and technology are mutually supportive; one makes hooks, nets, harpoons, and weirs to catch fish, but one can hardly expect a catch without the employment of power at some point or points in the technical sequence. On the other hand, power alone can sometimes bring fish crowding miraculously up on a beach, so that all people have to do is pick them up and cook them. (Cf. Account 10).
8. Puget Sound x w dá'b, Klallam sx w na'm·. The Twana word yuwaàd'ab "doctoring, curing" may possibly be connected.
9. Examples are: flea power, from Flea spirit, prevents flea bites; hives, s'ákw, power, from Butter Clam spirit, prevents hive eruptions after surfeit of shellfish.
10. The major differences between the lay and shaman power complexes are analyzed in Elmendorf 1960:510-512.
11. But note that in Account 11 a treating shaman, without apparent relationship to either party, discusses the fee with his patient before agreeing to kill a molesting shaman's power.
12. The only type of magic frequently mentioned and identified in Skokomish myths is this dxwč'lάxw spell-binding (see Elmendorf 1961, especially tales nos. 5, 24, 25, 26, 27).
13. Cf. Hymes 1958:983, Both (the ethnographer and the linguist) must construct a theory of how a culture (language) is organized by those who share it.
14. The writer is undertaking a preliminary analysis of this lexical material, much of which was gathered during field work in 1965 on the Nez Perce Indian Reservation. financed by a grant from the National Science Foundation (NSF GS-864).
15. Following the criteria enunciated by Sapir 1916:62; in the 1949 reprint, p. 440- 441.
16. Two Skokomish community headmen during the period 1840-1860 are known to have been shamans: sxwáxwacał and his son sμιdáx + ̣tǝd ( Tyee Tom).
17. See Eells 1886 for the progress and conflicts of this mission with both shamans and early Shakers.
18. See Gunther 1949 and Collins 1950 for Shaker incorporation of native Coast Salish supernaturalism.
19. Barnett ( 1957:351-353) shows that the violent Shaker opposition to shamans goes back to the founder of the sect, John Slocum.
20. Native social groupings are discussed in Elmendorf ( 1960:257-259, 306-317 -- villages; 317-321 -- classes; 347-349 -- kin groups; 298-305, 401-407 -- intercommunity relations).
21. These accounts are extracted from the body of narratives referred to in note 3, above. Most of them have been abridged, and I have smoothed out the informants' expressions sufficiently to remove innumberable "ain'ts", supply occasional verbs "to

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Systems of North American Witchcraft and Sorcery
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Title Page i
  • Preface iii
  • Table of Contents v
  • Contents vi
  • Introduction 1
  • References Cited 9
  • Chapter I - Western Apache Witchcraft 11
  • Chapter II - Pueblo Witchcraft and Medicine 37
  • References Cited 70
  • Chapter III - Witchcraft in Tecospa and Tepepan 73
  • References Cited 92
  • Chapter IV - Two Views of Obeah and Witchcraft 95
  • References Cited 108
  • Notes 122
  • References Cited 123
  • Chapter V - Sorcery in Santiago El Palmar 125
  • References Cited 145
  • Chapter VI - Introduction Skokomish Sorcery, Ethics, and Society 147
  • Appendix 5 166
  • References Cited 181
  • References Cited 182
  • Chapter VII - Menomini Witchcraft 183
  • Chapter VIII - Witchcraft AMong Kaska Indians 221
  • References Cited 235
  • Chapter IX - Iroquois Witchcraft at Six Nations 239
  • References Cited 262
  • References Cited 264
  • Chapter X - Sorcery Among the Nez Perces 267
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