to foster good intergroup relations and the desire to retain one's ethnic identity. The significance of having a climate of good intergroup relations has long been recognized and needs only to be underscored in the present context. The importance of creating or maintaining a secure ethnolinguistic identity emerges as a central issue that is only beginning to be appreciated. Threats to ethnic identity arose in the context of a deculturation ideology only indirectly but were central to the assimilation, integration, and separatism ideologies. The process of identity is as yet not well enough understood to allow a confident appreciation of its role in successful bilingual programs. It is in this uncertain context that a tentative suggestion is made about the multicultural ideology, which offers the best chance for ensuring the success of bilingualism. Specifically, an integrationist orientation building on a shared perspective in which all concerned have contributed to that perspective may eliminate many of the intergroup barriers to effective childhood bilingualism.
I wish to thank M. P. Walker for comments made on an earlier draft of the paper.
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