Politics, Society and Christianity in Vichy France

By W. D. Halls | Go to book overview

they tendered to young Christians was--perhaps not deliberately-- somewhat ambiguous, on the whole they favoured compliance, making a virtue out of necessity. They resented the challenge to their authority by 'anonymous theologians' who counselled refusal of the STO, and claimed they alone had the right to act as spiritual directors of conscience. On the positive side, the despatch clandestinely of priests in the guise of workers to Germany marked the beginnings of the workerpriest movement, which, though it ultimately collapsed, did bring the Church and the working-class somewhat closer together. By now the moment had come to judge the record of Christians, bishops, priests, pastors and laity alike. Would they at the Liberation be weighed in the balance and found wanting?


Notes

Unless otherwise stated the place of publication is Paris

1.
A Dio, Lille, 2 B 1, ACA 1942-1945. ACA 20-22 January 1943.
2.
E. Poulat, Naissance des prêtres-ouvriers, Tournai, 1965, p. 250.
3.
AN 2 AG 492.
4.
AN 2 AG 493. Extract from a pastoral letter (n.d), reported in Libération, ( London), 30 March 1943; AN F60. 1674 (Fighting French file). News Digest, no. 1245, 18 September 1943.
5.
Quoted in Poulat, Naisssance, pp. 250ff.
6.
C. Tardieu, "Les baudruches crevées", Grand Echo du Nord, 16 March 1943,
7.
Mgr Georges Leclercq, then the head of the Grand Séminaire, Lille, said that Cardinal Liénart made several visits to the seminary to urge the seminarists to go to Germany.
8.
Actes: Lyons, p. 316.
9.
AD du Nord, Lille, R 2457. File: Cardinal Liénart. Letter enclosing tract from Commissaire Central de Police, Lille, 26 March 1943, to Carles, Prefect of Nord.
10.
AN 2 AG 75. 'Note (secret)', 26 March 1943.
11.
AN 2 AG 492. 'Note', ref: 4/SA, Vichy 20 April 1943.
12.
AN 2 AG 492. 'Note' by Lavagne, Vichy, 20 April 1943.
13.
Ibid. The archive note links this, without clarification, to the many rumours of peace that were circulating in the spring of 1943, in which the Pope might act as mediator.
14.
AN F60. 1674. CNI (Fighting French file). Message received 26 June 1943.
15.
The complete text of the declaration is printed in Cahiers no. XVII, 'Déportation'.
17.
Semaine Catholique, Toulouse, 25 March 1943. The full text of this message was produced in the clandestine Courrier, no. 3, Lyons, July 1943, pp..226f, and reprinted in part in the Courrier de Genève, 10 September 1943.
18.
AN 2 AG 492, 'Note (Secret)', 8 April 1943.
19.
Actes: Biviers, p. 180.
20.
AN F60. 1758. Quoted in Pour la Liberté, monthly bulletin in French of the British Information ministry, May-June 1943, under the title: 'Les Eglises françaises et les cercles d'étudiants résistent toujours'.

-334-

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Politics, Society and Christianity in Vichy France
Table of contents

Table of contents

  • Berg French Studies ii
  • Title Page iii
  • Contents v
  • Preface vii
  • List of Abbreviations x
  • Part I - Christianity in Crisis 1
  • 1 - Introductory 3
  • Notes 13
  • 2 - Christians and Pre-War Politics 15
  • Notes 28
  • 3 - Prelude to Vichy 31
  • Notes 40
  • Part II - Aspirations, Realisations and Disappointments 43
  • 4 - The Man of Destiny 45
  • Notes 65
  • 5 - Christians in Disarray 69
  • Notes 84
  • 6 - The Church: New Laws 87
  • Notes 92
  • Part III - The Scapegoats 93
  • 7 - Christians and Jews--I 95
  • Notes 110
  • 8 - Christians and Jews--Ii 113
  • Notes 124
  • 9 - Christians and Jews: The Aftermath 127
  • Notes 144
  • Part IV - Friends and Foes 149
  • 10 - Christians and the Allies 151
  • Notes 162
  • 11 - Christians, Bombings and 'terrorism' 165
  • Notes 174
  • 12 - Christians and Germans 177
  • Notes 195
  • 13 - Christians and the Resistance 199
  • Notes 220
  • 14 - Vichy, the Church and the Vatican 223
  • Notes 236
  • Part V - The Church and Society 239
  • 15 - The Church and Economic and Social Affairs 241
  • Notes 265
  • 16 - Youth Policy and the Church 269
  • Notes 284
  • 17 - Youth Movements 287
  • Notes 307
  • 18 - Christians and Deportation to Germany 311
  • Notes 334
  • Part VI - Settling the Accounts 339
  • 19 - Christians and the Collaborationists 341
  • Notes 356
  • 20 - 'Epuration' and the Higher Clergy 361
  • Notes 379
  • 21 - Concluding Remarks 383
  • Notes 388
  • Appendix I Before the War: L'Aube and the Catholic Intellectual Press 389
  • Notes 391
  • Appendix II Bishops and Archbishops by Province 393
  • Bibliographical Note 397
  • Select Bibliography 399
  • Index 405
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