IF IT were not for living off the country, civilization on the Koyukuk could not survive to-day. The $27,000 in gold taken out of the ground during the past year would obviously be insufficient to support the 127 people with the high prices they have to pay, were it not for the additional subsistence provided by the animal and plant life of the region. These biological resources are made available through hunting, trapping, fishing, berrying, logging, and gardening.
Hunting is at the same time one of the major occupations and one of the chief sports in the Koyukuk. It is more seriously depended upon for a living by the fifty Eskimos than are any of the other activities. It is pursued by over half of the whites as an important means of filling the larder. Yet to both races, with a few disgruntled exceptions, it is a labor anticipated and performed with the greatest joy. I know one fellow who made over $2,000 last winter in his mining, but great as was the thrill of his successful venture, it paled beside three weeks of an autumn hunting trip in which he and his partner killed a dozen sheep. I recall three other men who returned to Wiseman after a week of autumn hunting without a single animal to show for their efforts. They had trav