taste had been securely established among independent spirits like Ruskin's father.
Criticism, however, lagged far behind: the press had become frightened by Turner's latest impressions; there was no new theory to explain or justify the confusing combination of literalism, idealization and willful technique in the new paintings; even the popular genre studies were still discussed in terms that scarcely fitted the facts of their subjects, their composition or their manner. Painters less courageous than Turner were still trying to adapt new matter and genuinely poetic conceptions to old academic rules. In this advance of practice over understanding the young Ruskin found his opportunity. He felt the demand for truth but he perceived the ghosts of eighteenth century tradition still dominating academic taste and esthetic principles. He therefore set about telling the public just what truth in art really was.
BRINTON, C. Political Ideas of The English Romanticists. Oxford 1926.
CLARKE, K. The Gothic Revival. N. Y. 1929 (particularly chs. V and VI).
ELTON, O. A Survey of English Literature 1780 to 1830. London 1924 (particularly vol. i, pp. 180-91).
FAIRCHILD, H. The Romantic Quest. N. Y. 1931 (particularly chs. X and XIII).
MANWARING, E. Italian Landscape in Eighteenth Century England. N. Y. 1925 (particularly chs. I, IV and VII).
ARSTRONG, SIR W. Art in Britain and Ireland. London 1909.
HIND, C. L. Landscape Painting. N. Y. 1923 (particularly pp. 226-7).