THE changes in this new edition have had in view three main purposes: to correct errors; to incorporate the results of recent research, and to bring the bibliography up to date; and to assist the reader by identifying some of the minor characters and explaining some of the less familiar contemporary terms.
In the revision I have enjoyed the assistance of Clarence L. Ver Steeg of Northwestern University for colonial history and of F. P. Wilson of the University of Oxford for literature. Sir George Clark, the editor of the Oxford History of England, has once again placed me heavily in his debt by giving me many fruitful suggestions.
1 September 1955
MR. GODFREY DAVIES, the author of this book, died on 28 May 1957. It therefore fell to my lot to see this second edition through the press. I have added references to some publications which appeared after the above Preface was written: several of them had been reviewed by Mr. Davies himself. I must also pay my tribute here to the devotion with which he carried on his historical studies in defiance of long-protracted illness, and to his generous friendship through many years.
G. N. C.