DURING this period two calendars were in use. The Julian, or Old Style, used in England, was ten days behind the Gregorian, or New Style, used in most continental countries. Moreover, on the Continent a year began on 1 January, but for most purposes in England a year began on 25 March. In this book dates are given according to the Old Style so far as the day and month are concerned, but the year is taken to begin on 1 January. Thus, an Eng lish contemporary would have dated the execution of Charles I, 30 January 1648; a foreigner, 9 February 1649. Here the date is given 30 January 1649.