EDUCATION AND SCIENCE
THE profound effects of the Renaissance in English education had by no means spent themselves by the beginning of the seventeenth century. New ideals of scholarship vibrated powerfully through the realm of thought, and fresh material for study was available in abundance. The highest in the land became men of letters or their patrons, and the middle classes were imbued with 'the modern faith in education as a means to cure all social ills, to induce happiness, and to make mankind generally wiser, wealthier, and more godly'.1 The Reformation had hampered in some ways, and helped in others, the cause of education in England. The destruction of monasteries, nunneries, and chantries swept away most of the facilities for teaching the boys and girls of England, and the grammar schools founded out of the spoils by no means filled the void. Moreover, although teaching the young was taken out of the hands of what had been primarily religious institutions, the church retained a tight grip over education. Not only must every schoolmaster have a licence that attested his orthodoxy, but also it was forbidden, under the severest penalties, that any child or youth should be sent abroad to be educated. The very choice of subjects of study was largely dictated by theological considerations. No doubt it was a great benefit that the artisan or the labourer should try to learn his letters in order to read the Bible in his native language, but it is by no means certain that education in England did not suffer, in the long run, through confining the teaching of boys at the grammar schools mainly to Latin, Greek, and Hebrew, the three languages essential for biblical study and theological controversy.
The general interest in education can be illustrated in a variety of ways. There were many writers on methodology, of whom John Brinsley, who published his Ludus Literarius in 1612, and Charles Hoole, who issued his New Discovery of the Old Art of Teaching Schoole in 1660, are the most important for the curriculum of a grammar school. There were many pamphleteers____________________